All eyes are turned towards genomic data and models as the source of knowledge about whether human races exist or not. Will genomic science make the final decision about whether racial realism (e.g. racial population naturalism) or anti-realism (e.g. racial scepticism) is correct? We think not. The results of even our best and most impressive genomic technologies under-determine whether biogenomic races exist, or not. First, different sub-disciplines of biology interested in population structure employ distinct concepts, aims, measures and models, producing cross-cutting categorisations of population subdivisions rather than a single, universal biogenomic concept of 'race.' Second, within each sub-discipline (e.g. phylogenetics, conservation biology), genomic results are consistent with, and map multiply to, racial realism and anti-realism. Indeed, racial ontologies are constructed conventionally, rather than discovered. We thus defend a constructivist conventionalism about biogenomic racial ontology. Choices and conventions must always be made in identifying particular kinds of groups. Political agendas, social programmes, and moral questions premised on the existence of naturalistic race should accept that no scientifically grounded racial ontology is forthcoming, and adjust presumptions, practices and projects accordingly.
Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther and Jonathan Michael Kaplan
Michael S. Carolan
This article maps key epistemological and ontological terrains associated with biotechnology. Beginning with the epistemological, a comparison is made between the scientific representations of today, particularly as found in the genomic sciences, and the scientific representations of the past. In doing this, we find these representations have changed over the centuries, which has been of significant consequence in terms of giving shape to today's global political economy. In the following section, the sociopolitical effects of biotechnology are discussed, particularly in terms of how the aforementioned representations give shape to global path dependencies. By examining the epistemological and ontological assumptions that give shape to the global distribution of informational and biological resources, this article seeks to add to our understanding of today's bioeconomy and the geographies of control it helps to create.
Neuropolitics, Neuroscience and Subjectivity
Nikolas Rose and Joelle Abi-Rached
This article considers how the brain has become an object and target for governing human beings. How, and to what extent, has governing the conduct of human beings come to require, presuppose and utilize a knowledge of the human brain? How, and with what consequences, are so many aspects of human existence coming to be problematized in terms of the brain? And what role are these new 'cerebral knowledges' and technologies coming to play in our contemporary forms of subjectification, and our ways of governing ourselves? After a brief historical excursus, we delineate four pathways through which neuroscience has left the lab and became entangled with the government of the living: psychopharmacology, brain imaging, neuroplasticity and genomics. We conclude by asking whether the 'psychological complex' of the twentieth century is giving way to a 'neurobiological complex' in the twenty-first, and, if so, how the social and human sciences should respond.
Extinction, Spirits, and Anthropological Responsibility
that drew on years of morphometric, behavioural and genomic research to prove the existence of a third, isolated orangutan species – the Tapanuli – members of which had previously been classified as Sumatran ( Nater et al. 2017 ). Towards the end, the
A Study of Patients with Thalassemia in Iran
.4159/9780674029927 Epstein , C. J. ( 2006 ), ‘ Medical Genetics in the Genomic Medicine of the 21st Century ’, American Journal of Human Genetics 79 , no. 3 : 434 – 438 . 10.1086/507610 Fallah , M. S. , Samavat , A. and Zeinali , S. ( 2009 ), ‘ Iranian
.3167/001115705781002039 ; Dominic Cummings, “Some Thoughts on Education and Political Priorities,” https://static.guim.co.uk/ni/1381763590219/-Some-thoughts-on-education.pdf (accessed 2 October 2020); Dominic Cummings, “Genetics, Genomics, Predictions & ‘the Gretzky Game
Sanne van der Hout and Martin Drenthen
of Treasure Hunting A typical example of a field of research that endorses an ecotechnological perspective is metagenomics, “the culture-independent genomic analysis of microbial communities” ( Schloss and Handelsman 2003: 303 ). In the 1990s, most
Thinking with Salmon Otoliths and Scales
Heather Anne Swanson
-to-follow animals; (2) technologies for investigating animal communicative practices that fall outside the range of human visual and aural practices; 8 and (3) methods of genomic analysis, including phytogeography. Inspired by such work, I explore the possibilities
COVID-19 and the Reshaping of Human–Microbial Relations
Carmen McLeod, Eleanor Hadley Kershaw, and Brigitte Nerlich
to Be Human in an Interconnected Post-Genomic World ’, New Genetics and Society 28 , no. 1 : 19 – 36 , doi: 10.1080/14636770802670233 . 10.1080/14636770802670233 Otis , L. ( 1999 ), Membranes: Metaphors of Invasion in Nineteenth
Ethnographic approaches to neoliberalization
Oscar Salemink and Mattias Borg Rasmussen
. 2012 . “ Your DNA is our history”: Genomics, anthropology, and the construction of whiteness as property . Current Anthropology 53 ( S5 ): S233 – S245 . 10.1086/662629 Robbins , Joel . 2013 . Beyond the suffering subject: Toward an anthropology