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Educating the Other

Foreign Governesses in Wallachia in the First Half of the Nineteenth Century

Nicoleta Roman

“Why, you must be quite mad to think of going so far away to a country of which nobody knows anything at all!” —Maude Parkinson, Twenty Years in Roumania 1 So said one of her friends to the Irish governess Maude Rea Parkinson when, in

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Elizabeth Mazzola

Roger Ascham has been credited with rehabilitating Elizabeth Tudor's image after a near-disastrous seduction at the hands of her stepmother's husband Thomas Seymour. But in many ways Ascham's tutelage merely continues a process the Lord Admiral had already begun, educating a young girl about what to wear, how to comport herself, and how to regard her male teacher, all necessary steps in the programme Vives details as removing 'the residue of her infancy'. This essay examines Ascham's seductions and Seymour's pedagogy with the larger aim of exploring the Tudor classroom, at once an official site of humanist learning and kind of rival space where women were taught to read and to write and to counteract the designs of male teachers. If images of Lucretia and Griselda resurface in accounts of Elizabeth's prodigious learning, there were other female figures - like Katherine Parr and Anne Boleyn, Elizabeth's governess Kat Ashley and the Duchess of Suffolk - who shaped a humanism of the household just as crucial as the humanism of the university.

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Lyons and Tigers and Wolves – Oh My!

Revisionary Fairy Tales in the Work of Angela Carter

Patricia Brooke

Fairy tales present Angela Carter with a range of subject matter for drawing out the beauty and violence in gender and sexual formations.1 In deconstructing the tales, Carter reveals the false universalizing inherent in many so-called master narratives of the Western literary tradition. Lorna Sage further highlights this strain in Carter’s work, arguing that by ‘going back to these preliterary forms of storytelling … she could experiment with her own writer’s role, ally herself in an imagination with the countless, anonymous narrators who stood behind literary redactors like Perrault or Grimm.’2 Thus, not only do fairy tales provide Carter with a radical content – fundamental and revolutionary – in their sexual and violent manifestations, but they also contest the authorial position, rejecting the romantic and modern authoritative voice in favour of the multiplicity of voices, often female, that have been repressed by the ‘official’ tellings of Perrault, Grimm, or Disney. Once the venue of women – mothers or governesses – passing tales from one generation to the next over the hearth, fairy tales were taken over by male chroniclers of culture in attempts to unify and totalize their belief systems.

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Sharon A. Kowalsky

governesses in the former Ottoman province of Wallachia in the early nineteenth century shows how Romanian elites, both old and new, sought to enhance their social status by hiring foreign women to educate their children. These transnational infusions

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Travel, Authority, and Framing the Subject

Elizabeth Justice’s A Voyage to Russia and Amelia

Matthew W. Binney

). Adding to these broader questions of credibility, Justice’s testimony counted even less because of her gender and lower class status as a governess. 1 As such she disguises her name and others’ in her semi-autobiography, causing a reviewer in the

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Girl, Interrupted and Continued

Rethinking the Influence of Elena Fortún’s Celia

Ana Puchau de Lecea

and 1950s, while the final stories in the series, Celia institutriz (Celia governess) (1944) and Celia se casa (Celia gets married) (1950), were being published some of her early readers began their own careers as writers. Nada (Nothing) (1944

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Monika Rudaś-Grodzka, Katarzyna Nadana-Sokołowska, Anna Borgos, and Dorottya Rédai

, aunts, sisters, cousins), and bonds with women around them (especially with governesses and teachers) who might become their mentors for life, or their friends. This so-called “women’s continuum” has been virtually erased from the collective memory by

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Rachel Pistol

were still ways of entering the country to work. For women, this primarily meant entering Britain as a domestic servant, companion, cook or governess in private employment. 18 Similarly, some men were able to obtain positions as butlers, agricultural

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A Fiction of the French Nation

The Émigré Novel, Nostalgia, and National Identity, 1797–1815

Mary Ashburn Miller

1815 until 1848, after all, France was ruled by former émigrés, including Louis Philippe, whose governess had been none other than the novelist Madame de Genlis. The process of legally reentering the nation was far from simple, especially prior to the

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Michael Hughes

political life in Petrograd during the fatal months and years before the 1917 Revolution. He also made some references to figures who received less attention in the British press, ranging from Sofiia Tiucheva (governess of the Romanov princesses) to Anna