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Jaime Rollins

This essay explores the differences between a practice called body modification and the behaviour known as self-injury (or self-harm, self-inflicted injury, self-mutilation, etc.), in which individuals purposefully harm themselves to get relief from strong emotion or in an attempt to gain control over themselves or their emotions. Although some consider both self-injury and body modification to be synonymous, I argue that self-injury is more like an addiction to many sufferers, making it like a mental illness or a disease. I use a narrative interview with a friend called 'Eva' to illustrate these differences from a self-harmer's point of view, and hope to show that while body modifiers are often proud of their transformations and view the process as a rite, self-harmers, in contrast, are often secretive and ashamed of their behaviour or addiction.

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Bülent Diken

force in the modern economy, for capitalism and Christianity are structurally bound together. What links them is articulated in social theory as the notion of guilt or debt. Seen in this prism, not only has capitalism found support in religion, but it

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Siobhan Kattago

Commemorating National Socialism and Communism from the perspective

of 1989 often results in an uneasy conflation of German

guilt and victimhood. When the events of 1933-1989 are presented

as one long authoritarian period, war and tyranny can easily be construed

as external forces that simply befell the German nation.

While memories of national guilt are divisive, memories of victimhood

unify and simplify an otherwise ambiguous past. The 1995

restoration of Berlin’s Neue Wache is emblematic of this conflation

of guilt and victimhood. As the central German memorial to all victims

of war and tyranny, the Neue Wache neither distinguishes

between dictatorships, nor between perpetrator and victim.

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Jurgen Pelzer

The film Downfall, released in 2004 at the height of an unprecedented "Hitler wave," has to be seen in a long tradition of literary and cinematic attempts to deal with Germany's "unmasterable past." The filmmakers claimed that by focusing on Hitler's final days before the end of WWII they had discovered "new territory" and presented the "facts behind the guilt." This article points out, however, that the film is historiographically based on the account by Joachim Fest's book Downfall-in which the author, as in his earlier work, follows a methodological approach that personalizes history and focuses on Hitler as "singular personality," rejecting any systematic analysis of political and social context. The film goes even further in its unscrupulous blurring of fact and fiction and simplistically juxtaposes a very small group of perpetrators (basically Hitler and Goebbels) and the large group of victims, i.e., the general population that only wanted to survive. Such an attempt to focus on a tragically failing, isolates Hitler, who alone is to blame for nation's "Downfall" is hardly suitable to help Germans to step out of the shadow of their past.

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Guilt and Accountability in the Postwar Courtroom

The Holocaust in Czortków and Buczacz, East Galicia, as Seen in West German Legal Discourse

Omer Bartov

This article examines the way in which West German courts confronted the case of low-level, former Nazi perpetrators who conducted mass killings of Jews in isolated towns in Eastern Europe. Using the example of the towns of Czortków and Buczacz in eastern Galicia, the article argues that such trials, conducted in the late 1950s and 1960s, sought both to recreate the historical reality of genocide on the local level, where killers and victims often knew each other by name, and to identify a type of perpetrator who differed essentially from "ordinary" Germans, even as he was himself invariably defined as a "victim of the circumstances of that time."

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A Totem and a Taboo

Germans and Jews Re-enacting Aspects of the Holocaust

Jeremy Schonfield

feel less guilty at meeting Poles than had they met them in Germany. Guilt at the presence of Jews, however, was mitigated only by the academic nature of the conference. There seemed to be less easy mingling between national groups during the coffee

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Nathan Stoltzfus

fueled by significant police and army resources, over what happened on Cephalonia illustrates continuing disputes about guilt and responsibility. Both sides, one a long-established veteran's group backed by powerful government agencies, solicited help

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The South Side of Heaven

A Journey along the Iranian Collective Memory in Iran-Iraq War Memorial Sites

Younes Saramifar

children during the war, became what Schwab calls ‘more than empty vessels’ that witnessed the history and later received the memories. They carried ‘a silence covered by words […] a deadly guilt and mute shame handed down as shards of splintered affect

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Sentimentalising Persons and Things

Creating Normative Arrangements of Bodies through Courtroom Talk

Jonas Bens

buildings itemised on the UNESCO World Heritage list – that play a major role in the Al Mahdi case. They are the bodies violated, and to determine the degree of Al Mahdi’s guilt, it is crucial rhetorically to position them in the right place. When it comes

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Introduction

Repatriation and Ritual, Repatriation as Ritual

Laura Peers, Lotten Gustafsson Reinius, and Jennifer Shannon

colonized claimants, repatriation articulates the outlines of an emerging moral landscape, where negotiations about memory, responsibility, guilt, identity, sanctity, place, and ownership are given a ritual form (cf. Gustafsson Reinius et al. 2012: 5 ). In