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Pre-pandemic Influences on Kenyan Girls’ Transitions to Adulthood during COVID-19

Meghan Bellerose, Maryama Diaw, Jessie Pinchoff, Beth Kangwana, and Karen Austrian

events that affect one's life, have been found to be protective against poor health outcomes following traumatic events and natural disasters ( Benight and Bandura 2004 ). However, it is unclear whether strong pre-pandemic support will protect girls from

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Blame Avoidance, Crisis Exploitation, and COVID-19 Governance Response in Israel

Moshe Maor

workforce active. However, although the public health outcome during the first wave of the coronavirus was a relative success, this was achieved despite the government's selection of unregulated, unorganized, inefficient, uncoordinated, and uninformed

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Sealing the Past, Facing the Future

An Evaluation of a Program to Support the Reintegration of Girls and Young Women Formerly Associated with Armed Groups and Forces in Sierra Leone

Alastair Ager, Lindsay Stark, Joanna Olsen, Mike Wessells, and Neil Boothby

This paper reports on an evaluation of a program in Sierra Leone that sought to support the community reintegration of young women and girls formerly associated with armed groups and forces. In the absence of baseline data, we used locally-derived indicators of reintegration and village timelines to conduct a retrospective cohort study of the progress of 142 girls and young women towards achievement of community reintegration following their experience of abduction. Although girls and young women in both intervention and comparison communities had made progress towards integration, the intervention was associated with improved mental health outcomes and higher ratings on some aspects of marriage quality. For those who had found the greatest challenges in reintegrating, the intervention additionally appeared to support community acceptance and inclusion in women's bondo activities.

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Presence in Relationship

A New Construct for Understanding Adolescent Friendships and Psychological Health

Judy Y. Chu and Niobe Way

This article introduces the construct of “presence in relationship” along with a 25-item measure for its quantitative assessment. This construct expands upon the construct of “voice” as an indication of one’s experiences of self in relationships. Whereas voice focuses on the act of speaking out (saying what one thinks and feels) in relationships, presence in relationship further reflects the extent to which an individual feels connected to his or her self (is self-aware), connected to others (truly known and understood by others), and confident (trusting that one will be accepted and valued by others) within the context of interpersonal relationships. Results from the study of two samples of ethnically diverse middle school (N = 113; 59 males, 54 females) and high school (N = 176; 86 males, 90 females) students in New York City indicate that the Presence in Relationship Scale (PIRS) demonstrates good reliability and provides insight into adolescents’ friendship processes and sense of well-being. Because it includes indicators of the experience of self in relationships, as well as behavioral indicators, presence in relationship may be especially useful for understanding relationships and associated mental health outcomes in boys (and girls) who tend to place less emphasis on voice as a primary way of determining of closeness in relationships.

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Place of Birth and Concepts of Wellbeing

An Analysis from Two Ethnographic Studies of Midwifery Units in England

Christine McCourt, Juliet Rayment, Susanna Rance, and Jane Sandall


This article is based on analysis of a series of ethnographic case studies of midwifery units in England. Midwifery units1 are spaces that were developed to provide more home-like and less medically oriented care for birth that would support physiological processes of labour, women’s comfort and a positive experience of birth for women and their families. They are run by midwives, either on a hospital site alongside an obstetric unit (Alongside Midwifery Unit – AMU) or a freestanding unit away from an obstetric unit (Freestanding Midwifery Unit – FMU). Midwifery units have been designed and intended specifically as locations of wellbeing and although the meaning of the term is used very loosely in public discourse, this claim is supported by a large epidemiological study, which found that they provide safe care for babies while reducing use of medical interventions and with better health outcomes for the women. Our research indicated that midwifery units function as a protected space, one which uses domestic features as metaphors of home in order to promote a sense of wellbeing and to re-normalise concepts of birth, which had become inhabited by medical models and a preoccupation with risk. However, we argue that this protected space has a function for midwives as well as for birthing women. Midwifery units are intended to support midwives’ wellbeing following decades of professional struggles to maintain autonomy, midwife-led care2 and a professional identity founded on supporting normal, healthy birth. This development, which is focused on place of birth rather than other aspects of maternity care such as continuity, shows potential for restoring wellbeing on individual, professional and community levels, through improving rates of normal physiological birth and improving experiences of providing and receiving care. Nevertheless, this very focus also poses challenges for health service providers attempting to provide a ‘social model of care’ within an institutional context.

1The term midwifery unit was adopted by the Birthplace research programme in place of the more popular term ‘birth centre’ to avoid ambiguity. In a midwifery unit care is not only provided by mid-wives but is also managed by midwives and does not normally include use of obstetric instruments or interventions. If a woman planning birth in a mid-wifery unit develops obstetric complications, or decides she wishes to have a medical intervention such as epidural pain relief, she is transferred for care to an obstetric unit. Some units called birth centres are not managed by midwives in this way.

2Midwife-led care refers to care where the midwife, rather than an obstetrician or other professional is the lead professional, who takes responsibility for a woman’s maternity care through from pregnancy to postnatal. Following the Changing Childbirth report in 1993, this was re-established as the usual model for women classified as at low risk of pregnancy and birth complications.

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‘I Certainly Wasn't as Patient-Centred’

Impacts and Potentials of Cross-Training Paramedics as Community Health Workers

Ryan I. Logan

-off. Thus, specific skills – particularly listening and following up – provided these paramedics with additional strategies to ensure more effective caregiving and positive health outcomes. During a home visit, one of Vanessa's patients revealed that their

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The health of migrants as a global peace and security agenda

Dudziro Nhengu

health provision circles and fuel negative health outcomes for development planners while increasing health risks for migrant populations. The study identified policy to practice gaps in the delivery of health services for women migrants. Recommendations

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Park Spaces and the User Experience

Reconsidering the Body in Park Analysis Tools

Eric A. Stone and Jennifer D. Roberts

accessible resource—parks—to influence positive health outcomes” while also bridging the curative and preventative models of medicine and public heath, respectively ( Park Rx America n.d. ). As Drs. Julie Maier and Shannon Jette (2016) discuss, through the

Open access

The Role of Anthropology in India's Public Health

A Comparative Perspective with the USA and Europe

Manisha Nitin Gore

crucial, as gender roles and power dynamics significantly influence health outcomes in India. Anthropological research can examine the impact of gender on healthcare access utilisation and decision-making leading to the development of gender

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Redefining Representation

Black Trans and Queer Women’s Digital Media Production

Moya Bailey

achieving Racial and Gender Justice.” 3 They set out to create a health guide that would help brown bois advocate for better health outcomes for themselves when interacting with health care providers, friends, and family. Aptly titled Freeing Ourselves: A