The household is a ubiquitous unit of analysis across the social sciences. In policy, research and practice, households are often considered a link between individuals and the structures that they interact with on a daily basis. Yet, researchers often take the household for granted as something that means the same thing to everyone across contexts. As the household has never truly been a static unit of analysis, we need to revisit the household to ensure that we are still capturing what it means to be part of a household – especially if we are engaging in research where we aim to compare households across time and space. We analyse how the concept of the household has been used over time and identify areas, such as migration and urbanisation, where we need to ensure conceptual clarity. We use our field notes and ethnographic interviews to show the challenges of such an analysis.
Plasticity Complicates the Unit of Analysis
Kelly A. Yotebieng and Tannya Forcone
Comment on Newberry and Rosen
the spotlight on women and children in particular seems to miss an important part of the equation, namely the household and the process of householding. True, care and nurture of children by women often occupies the prime spot in this space and these
In this article I examine how long-term economic strategies in the Bronze Age of northern Europe between 2300 and 500 BCE transformed the environment and thus created and imposed new ecological constraints that finally led to a major social transformation and a "dark age" that became the start of the new long-term cycle of the Iron Age. During the last 30 years hundreds of well-excavated farmsteads and houses from south Scandinavia have made it possible to reconstruct the size and the structure of settlement and individual households through time. During the same period numerous pollen diagrams have established the history of vegetation and environmental changes. I will therefore use the size of individual households or farmsteads as a parameter of economic strength, and to this I add the role of metal as a triggering factor in the economy, especially after 1700 BCE when a full-scale bronze technology was adopted and after 500 BCE when it was replaced by iron as the dominant metal. A major theoretical concern is the relationships between micro- and macroeconomic changes and how they articulated in economic practices. Finally the nature of the "dark age" during the beginning of the Iron Age will be discussed, referring to Sing Chew's use of the concept (Chew 2006).
This article aims to empirically test the so called low-cost hypothesis. The hypothesis posits that cost moderates the strength of the relationship between environmental concern and behavior. The effects of the behavioral cost and environmental concern on household waste recycling were evaluated, using empirical data collected from 2,695 respondents in Cologne, Germany. Empirically, a clear effect of both behavioral cost and environmental concern can be identified. Recycling rates are higher when a curbside scheme is implemented or the distance to collection containers is low. In addition, the probability of recycling participation rises when the actor has a pronounced environmental concern. This effect of environmental attitudes does not vary with behavioral cost and opportunities. Therefore, the low-cost hypothesis is not supported by the study.
The agricultural situation in Poland has been changing significantly during the last decades. In 1989, the predictability of the communist centrally planned economy was replaced by the unexpectedness and "invisible hand" of the free market economy. The socialist welfare state has been replaced by new modes of support, introduced by European Union (EU). On the basis of fieldwork conducted between 2005 and 2008 in farming communities in eastern Poland, I focus on decision making among small-scale farmers. This article addresses decision-making processes and their sociocultural context, including the reasons for and circumstances behind decisions, and also elements of decision-making processes that tend to hinder the introduction of EU agricultural policy. In the course of adapting to new and changing realities, farmers creatively use customary ways of thinking and acting in the various decisions they have to make while running the farm. Changes of the very mechanisms of decision-making processes seem to be rather slow, however.
Reducing Work Risks Stemming from the Market Economy in Northeast Thailand
Shinsuke Tomita, Mario Ivan Lopez, and Yasuyuki Kono
Thailand households. First, this article assumes that childbearing, child-rearing, and care for the elderly are risks that diminish the value of labor as labor enters the market. It then examines how households manage such risks for people who are in the
Governmentality and profit extraction through fabricated abundance and imposed scarcity in Peru and Spain
Ismael Vaccaro, Eric Hirsch, and Irene Sabaté
household level, by the slow but steadily increasing dependence on credit, or fictitious money. This continuous growth came always punctuated by occasional sporadic and localized debt crises in some part of the global economic system. These crises were often
Small-scale producers and the Plan Chontalpa in Tabasco, Mexico
Gisela Lanzas and Matthew Whittle
repay loans, provide money to the household, or both. Land sales provide a short-term solution for household cash flow problems but inevitably result in increasing long-term vulnerability and marginalization. Among the goals of the Plan Chontalpa were
written about her novels in weblogs, newspapers and magazines. In her last novel, We’ll Get Used to It ( ‘Âdat Mikonim ), three women, a widowed grandmother, a divorcee mother and a daughter, comprise a household in which the absentee father residing in
“I Am Not ‘Worthless’—I Am a Girl with a Lot to Share and Offer”
Emma Pearce, Kathryn Paik, and Omar J. Robles
relationships, households, and communities in humanitarian contexts, influencing both the risks and opportunities faced by adolescent girls with disabilities and girls living in households of persons with disabilities. Lessons learned from field research and