Neutrality and independence, along with humanity and impartiality, constitute core humanitarian principles. The humanitarian variant of neutrality, the one we know from Red Cross manifestos, was developed in the specific context of 1864 and was
Shifting contexts, shifting meanings—examples from South Sudan
This article examines the development of popular discourses of liberty as independence emerging from the struggles between peasants and landlords over the course of the late medieval and early modern periods. This discourse, relating to the aspirations of the dependent peasantry for free status, free tenure, and free labor, articulated a conception of independence that overlapped with the emerging republican discourse of the seventeenth century. However, whereas republicanism focuses almost exclusively on the arbitrary powers of the monarchical state, the popular tradition emphasizes freedom from the arbitrary powers of landlordism. After a brief introduction to the republican conception of liberty and a discussion of the dependent peasantry in England, the work of Gerrard Winstanley is presented as an innovative synthesis of popular and republican discourses of freedom as independence from the arbitrary powers of exploitation.
Attempts to explain the achievements of the Jewish side in the 1948 War of Independence have focused thus far on the military and political dimension and on the domestic social, economic, and ideological dimension, as reflected in the collective mobilization of the Yishuv society. This article reveals the role of additional players in the war, including institutions, organizations, and associations that provided social services; the individuals who headed them; the members who took part in operating them; and the recipients of their services. The article's underlying premise is that Jewish society largely owed its resilience during the war, and in its aftermath, to the functioning of these organizations.
The case of a remote tribal village in southwest Iran demonstrates the circumstances conducive to positive rural development. My research suggests that since the founding of this village around 1880, its people - led by a progressive, literate young chief - successfully defended their realm against incorporation into the neighbouring chiefs' reigns of lawlessness and warfare; introduced and modernised irrigation agriculture and fruit cultivation then unique in the whole region; and embraced formal education. Discussing such adaptive strategies, I argue that a strong ethos of progress and achievement, including civic awareness, motivated local people from the beginning to pursue new ways to improve their livelihood.
Reflections on the Balfour Declaration Centennial and the Winding Road to Israeli Independence
Arie M. Dubnov
Revisiting the Balfour Declaration, this article offers a threefold argument: first, challenging those who read the Declaration as symbolizing a new dawn of Jewish political history, the article proposes an alternative reading that considers it as a continuation of familiar patterns of Jewish political behaviour based on the forging of ‘vertical alliances’. Second, it argues that this perspective led many Jews to treat the Declaration as an unsigned ‘contract’, and it was not until the 1940s, with the rise in popularity of a discourse concerning Britain’s ‘betrayal’, that this view began to be challenged. Third, explaining how and why the vertical alliance perspective was pushed to the margins of Israeli collective memory, the article looks at the rise of the ‘security paradigm’ in Hebrew literature and examines the ways in which the creation of a Jewish army was imagined as marking the end of old forms of Jewish politics.
A Family Story
Jablonka’s method and my form of historical writing here attempt to fathom. Currently in their eighties living in Paris, my daughter’s grandparents are Moroccan Jews who opted for France several years after independence. Products of the social mobility and
Keïta Fodéba and the Imagining of National Culture in Guinea
Andrew W. M. Smith
Here, the experience of World War II and the tragedy of the Thiaroye massacre, as described in the poem, fade against the timeless rhythm of village life and the seasons, echoing the coming of another dawn. Yet, after independence, the addition of a new
A Nkrumahist Perspective
Ezekiel S. Mkhwanazi
independence in the then Gold Coast, and which also served Nigeria, Sierra Leone and the Gambia ( Sherwood 1996: 19 ). Nkrumah learnt a great deal of the history and politics of the Gold Coast from Wood. It was through the tutelage and mentorship of these men
State Intervention and the Overcoming of Dependency in Africa before the Crisis of the 1970s
the two paradigmatic radical Anglophone countries, Ghana, which achieved independence in 1957 and Tanganyika, following in 1961 but soon after incorporating the island of Zanzibar and renaming itself Tanzania. Thereafter there will be briefer comments
Nafissa Sid Cara and the Politics of Emancipation during the Algerian War
’s religiosity during the Algerian War for independence (1954–1962). French colonial-era modernization campaigns linked veiling with patriarchal tradition, seeking to “emancipate” Algerian women from the practice so they could become citizens of greater France. 3