evidenced by the growing body of works on comics and adaptation that relocate the debate within the more broadly inclusive concept of intermediality. In particular, examples can certainly be found in edited volumes focusing on adaptation from/into comics and
Comics and Adaptation
Armelle Blin-Rolland, Guillaume Lecomte, and Marc Ripley
Jean Pierre Mourey's L'Invention de Morel
In 1940, Adolfo Bioy Casares published La Invención de Morel [The Invention of Morel], a novel that can be considered as one of the most important works of twentieth-century Argentinian fantastic narrative. Since the novel portrays competition between different media, it is not surprising that this work has been adapted to several other media: visual arts, plays, opera, and several feature films, the first and still the best known being L'Année dernière à Marienbad [Last year in Marienbad] (1961). The latest incarnation of La Invención de Morel is the first comic version, created by Jean Pierre Mourey (2007). This article discusses Mourey's adaptation of the novel and the specific possibilities of the comic genre. Special attention will be paid to the conception of time, the manipulation of various media, and the competition between the written word and images which are at the heart of Bioy's novel, and the extent to which the French cartoonist's rendering of these aspects of the work is successful.
'Second Generation' Subjectivity and the Road 'Home' in Portugal (2011) and La Commedia des ratés (2011)
This article examines two graphic novels published in 2011, Portugal by Cyril Pedrosa and La Commedia des ratés [Holy Smoke] by Olivier Berlion, within the thematic and technical context of the French 'return' road movie, an increasingly prevalent category. Recent debates in political, cultural and academic spheres have focused on competing conceptions of Frenchness – traditional republicanism and multiculturalism – as well as the place of the 'second- or third-generation' descendants of immigrants. This article argues that Portugal and La Commedia des ratés, as quasi-autobiographic 'return' to origins narratives, represent compelling insight into the subjectivity of second-generation diasporic populations in France. I will also examine how these works employ the 'ninth art' to create fresh twists on the 'return' story. Finally, I will explore the graphic and narrative depictions of travel in each work, adapting Teresa Bridgeman's theory of 'world building' and 'world-switching' in bande dessinée. I argue that Portugal offers a compelling approach, re-creating on the page the effect of the cinematic 'traveling montage'.
, which gave rise to an increasingly Scottish inflection in the ads while simultaneously inscribing this identity as part of an overarching sense of Britishness. Finally, the intermedial nature of the strip shall be further analysed in connection with the
Matthew Screech, Bart Beaty, Kees Ribbens, and Christina Meyer
Jean-Marie Apostolidès, Dans la Peau de Tintin [‘In Tintin’s Skin’]
Alain Boillat, ed., Les Cases à l’écran: Bande dessinée et cinéma en dialogue [‘Panels on the Screen: Comics and Cinema in Dialogue’]
Viviane Alary and Benoît Mitaine, eds., Lignes de front: bande dessinée et totalitarisme [Frontlines: Comics and Totalitarianism]
Thomas Becker, ed., Comic: Intermedialität und Legitimität eines popkulturellen Mediums [‘Comics: Intermediality and Legitimacy of a Popular Medium’]
Intermedial Transgenericity in Anyango and Mairowitz's Graphic Adaptation of Heart of Darkness
Anyango and Mairowitz's graphic adaptation Heart of Darkness, published in 2010, interweaves parts of the original Conradian novella Heart of Darkness with several entries from Conrad's Congo Diary (1890), a series of stark factual notations he wrote down when visiting Congo in 1890. While this adaptation insists on a spatialization and historicization of the original text, the heterogeneous obscure graphic style as well as the intermediality created by the tension image-text-diary exposes the alterity and ambivalence within Conrad himself. This essay examines how the graphic narrative allows diary and fiction to act in dialogue with image, complicating Conrad's critique of Belgian colonialism and his implied indictment of British colonial expansion.
Anger in Popular Hindi Cinema
The article advocates the importance of studying conceptual meaning and change in modern mass media and highlights the significance of conceptual intermediality. The article first analyzes anger in Hindi cinema as an audiovisual key concept within the framework of an Indian national ideology. It explores how anger and the Indian angry young man became popularized, politicized, and stereotyped by popular films and print media in India in the 1970s and 1980s. The article goes on to advocate for extending conceptual history beyond language on theoretical grounds and identifies two major obstacles in political iconography: the methodological subordination of visuals to language in the negotiation of meaning, and the distinction of emotion and reason by assigning them functionally to different sign systems.
Moving Media Language from a Picture Book to a Short Film
The transformation of a picture book into a film is a special case of film adaptation because this process involves inherently intermedial qualities. In media literacy terms, when viewers look at a picture book that has been made into a film, they familiarize themselves with the story's imagery and plot, which makes it easier for them to comprehend the techniques employed by the film to create meaning. The Oscar-winning short film The Lost Thing is exemplary of this, as it narrates the same story as the original picture book, dealing with social as well as existential issues. This comparative analysis focuses on the two di erent narrations of this story with regard to the literacy skills required to comprehend them.
This article examines the quotations of Elizabeth I’s iconic portraiture as Virgin Queen in Shekhar Kapur’s Elizabeth (1998) and Elizabeth: The Golden Age (2007), and their effect on our a posteriori conceptualization of the depicted body of the female sovereign. Using Mieke Bal’s concept of preposterous history, I argue that Kapur’s transposition of Virgin Queen iconography onto celluloid results in a “(complex) text” that “is both a material object and an effect” (1999: 14). Bal acknowledges that the complexity that lies in the material results of the artistic quotation is not necessarily subversive, as it is dependent on the quoting artist’s ideological premise. Indeed, Kapur’s intermedial quotation of Elizabethan portraiture imbues the highly complex body of the female ruler with contemporary heteronormative notions of female sexuality, thereby reducing it to an object for the male gaze.
Kenneth Branagh and Adapting the 'Shakespearean' Actor
The focus within adaptation studies on embracing intermediality should necessitate exploration not only of other mediums worthy of critical attention such as video games, opera and radio, but also of different adaptive sites: in particular, the body of the actor. More so than with any other author, there is a mode of performance associated with Shakespeare's work that is employed popularly and academically to encompass an individual actor's entire career. This association actively erases an actor's diversity and reduces the performance of their body to a single, definitive function. Actors such as Kenneth Branagh thus remain intimately connected with not only their personal interpretations of Shakespeare, but the playwright in general as a cultural, historical figure. Even when Branagh directs Thor, the Marvel studio comic book adaptation, press reactions and reviews of the film demonstrate the inseparability of his Shakespearean persona from his professional identity as a whole. Of interest, therefore, is the way in which the 'Shakespearean' title is used: what implicit values are ascribed through its usage, what cultural systems perpetuate this attribution, but also what new avenues of critical exploration and what new texts are opened up by acknowledging the actor as the site of adaptive encounter and what traditional concepts of the adaptive text are disturbed.