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Residential Segregation in Israel, 1961–2008

The Spatial Assimilation of Immigrants

Noga Keidar

While scholars study residential segregation dynamics in order to understand minorities’ assimilation into mainstream society, less is known about these mechanisms in ethno-national migration contexts. This article examines Israel’s demographic dynamics from 1961 to 2008 in order to evaluate and provide a framework for the process of spatial assimilation of Mizrahim and Ashkenazim in the context of segregation from the Palestinian citizens of Israel. By using the Theil index (H), I assess the level of segregation in different geographic layers and then explore how internal migration has reduced spatial distance within the Jewish society. The analysis demonstrates that despite the disadvantaged position of Mizrahim as of 1961, levels of residential segregation had decreased by 1983. Also, boundaries changed from a variance between Mizrahim and Ashkenazim into a variance among Mizrahim only, with those who relocated as the most spatially assimilated group and those who remained as the most segregated one.

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Dirk Hoerder

Bordered nation-state approaches are increasingly challenged and they rarely hold up under critical questioning. In this essay I discuss the cultural interactions across Central Europe that preceded the nineteenth-century development of national consciousness and—for many only after 1918—independent states. I argue that identities based on religion, profession or craft, administrative or military expertise characterized people more than those founded on ethnocultural/regional origin during the various migrations of the period. A dual outward-inward perspective focuses on the influence of German-speakers in other parts of Europe and on men and women from other cultures in the core German-language regions. I carry the story up to the 1930s and I argue that transregional and transcultural approaches are empirically sounder than transnational ones. It follows that migrant destinations also need to be addressed as micro- or macro-regions—the several distinct locations in Eastern, East Central, and Southeastern Europe, for example—rather than in terms of states.

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Desarrollo vs. satisfacción de necesidades básicas

Recepción de remesas en Morelos, México

Ana Melisa Pardo Montaño and Claudio Alberto Dávila Cervantes

Abstract

This article responds to the following questions: Which socio- demographic characteristics of households influence the reception of remittances in Morelos? What are the differences in household expenditure in basic needs if a household receives internal or international remittances, or if it receives none? Using the National Income and Expenditure Survey of 2016, we employed a logistic regression to examine the factors associated with the reception of remittances, and we analyzed different areas of expenditure by type of household. We present some reflection on a sending community in Morelos (Axochiapan) where we conducted 23 semi-structured interviews with people who receive remittances, who explained the main uses of these resources. We observed household characteristics that favor the reception of remittances, mainly used to satisfy basic needs.

Resumen

Este artículo buscó responder: ¿qué características socio-demográficas en hogares influyen en la recepción de remesas en Morelos? y ¿cuáles son las diferencias en el gasto de los hogares respecto a sus necesidades básicas recibiendo o no remesas internas o internacionales? Utilizando la Encuesta Nacional de Ingresos y Gastos de los Hogares 2016, estimamos una regresión logística para examinar los factores asociados a la recepción de remesas y analizamos los rubros del gasto por tipo de hogar. Presentamos opiniones de una comunidad de origen en Morelos (Axochiapan), donde realizamos 23 entrevistas semiestructuradas a personas receptoras de remesas, quienes explicaron los principales usos de estos recursos. Observamos características de los hogares que favorecen la recepción de remesas, mayormente ocupadas en la satisfacción de necesidades básicas.

Résumé

Cet article pose la question suivante: quelles caractéristiques sociodémographiques des ménages influencent les transferts de fonds au Morelos? Quelles sont les différences de dépenses des ménages quant à leurs besoins fondamentaux, en fonction des transferts de fonds internes ou internationaux? A partir de l'Enquête nationale sur les revenus et dépenses de 2016, nous avons réalisé une régression logistique afin d'analyser les facteurs associés à la réception de fonds et les types de dépenses selon les ménages. Nous présentons ici les résultats concernant une communauté originaire du Morelos (Axochiapan), où nous avons effectué vingt-trois entretiens semi-structurés avec des destinataires de fonds qui ont expliqué les principales utilisations qu'ils faisaient de ces revenus. Nous en concluons les caractéristiques des ménages qui favorisent la réception des transferts de fonds, destinés principalement à satisfaire des besoins fondamentaux.

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Rossana Campodónico

The article reviews the main literature on tourism and transport history in Uruguay, showing the recent progress on studies of mobility in the shaping of the national territory as well as new themes and periods that need to be studied. The article points out that the trilogy of tourism, mobility, and territory is relevant to understanding the image of Uruguay as a tourist country. Along with the importance given to road infrastructure, modes of transport, travelers, destinations, communication, and so on, the article highlights mobility processes such as internal migration provoked by tourism as phenomena that require more attention.

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Contingency and Constraint

African-American Migration as Seen through Jacob Lawrence's “Migration” Series

Deborah Breen

Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) 11 West 53rd Street, New York, NY 10019 http://www.moma.org/interactives/exhibitions/2015/onewayticket/ Admission: USD 25/18/14 “I pick up my life, / And take it with me, / And I put it down in Chicago, Detroit, / Buff alo, Scranton, / Any place that is / North and East, / And not Dixie.” Th ese are the opening lines from “One-Way Ticket,” by African-American poet, Langston Hughes (1902–1967). Th e poem provides the emotional and historical core of the “Migration” paintings by Jacob Lawrence (1917–2000), a series that depicts the extraordinary internal migration of African Americans in the twentieth century. Not coincidentally, the poem also provides the title of the current exhibition of the sixty paintings in Lawrence’s series, on display at MoMA, New York, from 3 April to 7 September 2015.1 Shown together for the first time in over twenty years, the paintings are surrounded by works that provide context for the “great migration”: additional paintings by Lawrence, as well as paintings, drawings, photographs, texts, and musical recordings by other African-American artists, writers, and performers of the early to mid-twentieth century.

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Andrea Flores Urushima

The 1960s period witnessed the most important internal migration of Japan's population since the modern period with the definitive shift from a rural to an urban-based society. This unprecedented transformation led the Japanese central government to request visions for the prospective development of the national territory in an open competition. Responding to this call, a wide range of reports were produced and debated between 1967 and 1972, mobilizing a vast network of influential representatives in city making, such as sociologists, economists, urban planners, and architects. This article analyzes these reports on the theme of the conservation of natural and historical heritage. To support a sustainable development that was adjustable to economic and social change, the reports emphasized the aesthetic and environmental value of natural landscapes and traditional lifestyles. The reports also proclaimed the rise of an information society and stressed the growing importance of leisure and tourism activities, nowadays one of the most profitable industries worldwide. Apart from their value as interdisciplinary reflections on problems related to urban expansion with visionary qualities, the reports were also highly relevant because they influenced later policies on urban planning and heritage preservation.

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Halil Can

Building on a long-term, multi-sited ethnographic research project, this article illustrates and interprets the transformation processes and empowerment strategies pursued by an originally Zazaki-speaking, multigenerational Alevi family in the Turkish-German transnational context. The family, which includes a number of Alevi priests (seyyid or dede), hails from the Dersim4 region of eastern Anatolia, and their family biography is closely bound up with a traumatic mass murder and crime against humanity that local people call “Dersim 38“ or “Tertele.“ Against the background of this tragedy, the family experienced internal migration (through forced remigration and settlement) thirty years before its labor migration to Germany. This family case study accordingly examines migration as a multi-faceted process with plural roots and routes. The migration of people from Turkey neither begins nor ends with labor migration to Germany. Instead, it involves the continuous, nonlinear, and multidirectional movement of human beings, despite national border regimes and politics. As a result, we can speak of migration processes that are at once voluntary and forced, internal and external, national and transnational. 5 In this particular case, the family members, even the pioneer generation labor migrants who have since become shuttle migrants, maintain close relationships with Dersim even as they spend most of their lives in a metropolitan German city. At the same time, they confront moments of everyday in- and exclusion in this transnational migration space that define them as both insiders and out- siders. Keeping these asymmetrical attributions in mind, I examine the family's sociocultural, religious, and political practices and resources from a transna- tional perspective, paying close attention to their conceptualization of identity and belonging as well as their empowerment strategies.

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Terry-Ann Jones

theories, while rural-urban movement is the focus of paradigms of internal migration. Internal colonialism provides the most fitting conceptual lens through which to understand this particular pattern of migration, given the uneven development between

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The Socio-Demographic Situation in the Republic of Tuva

Conditions of Social Transformation, 1990s–early 2000s

Zoya Dorzhu

Translator : Jenanne Ferguson

compared to 1989, due to migration from the Republic. However, since the beginning of the 1990s, there has been an intensive internal migration. The main flow of migrants is to the capital, Kyzyl, where people hope to find jobs and provide quality education

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Farideh Pourgiv

the population structure of the country, and vice versa. Rapid urbanization, new patterns of internal migration, declining fertility, the current youth bulge, an upcoming aged population, as well as the growing number of female-headed households are