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British Government Aid to French Émigrés and Early Humanitarian Relief during the French Revolution

Kirsty Carpenter

Abstract

Britain sheltered thousands of French refugees fleeing the Revolution. Relief organized on their behalf was unique at the time because it included both charitable and government-funded aid to temporary foreign residents. Resources were channeled through nongovernmental voluntary bodies in the French community and distributed by Jean-François de la Marche, the exiled Bishop of Saint Pol de Léon. The emigrants of the 1790s were agents of their own survival, but they also depended on diverse forms of support in host countries. That story has clear parallels in our own time. Eighteenth-century British relief also served as a precursor for subsequent humanitarian funding for victims of war and persecution.

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Rethinking affects of care through power

An introduction

Heike Drotbohm and Hansjörg Dilger

://doi.org/10.1111/jlca.12533 Kowalski , Robert 2011 . “ The gift: Marcel Mauss and international aid. ” Journal of Comparative Social Welfare 27 ( 3 ): 189 – 205 . https://doi.org/10.1080/17486831.2011.595069 Lutz , Catherine A. , and Lila Abu

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The Making of Modern Afghanistan

Reconstruction, Transnational Governance and Gender Politics in the New Islamic Republic

Julie Billaud

This article seeks to characterise the nature of the post-Taliban 'reconstruction' project in Afghanistan through an analysis of observations and interviews collected in the Ministry of Women's Affairs (MoWA) in 2007. Based on a case study of a 'gender empowerment' training programme administered by the MoWA and funded by an international aid agency, I underline some intricacies in the relationships that are built in development encounters. I argue that the current efforts to include gender issues in politics are part of a broader cultural project aimed at setting up the conditions of possibility for the creation of a modern Afghan state. I show how reconstruction does not simply consist in the formation of a bureaucratic apparatus based on Western models of liberal democracies but primarily involves cultural and symbolic production.

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Climate Changing Small Islands

Considering Social Science and the Production of Island Vulnerability and Opportunity

Amelia Moore

This article argues that climate change has influenced the way in which small island nations are viewed and understood by the international climate community. Climate change has become an internationally recognized and specific language of vulnerability that is deployed in requests for international aid to fund adaptation and mitigation measures in some small islands, for population relocation plans and human rights advocacy in other islands, and for overhauling the 'tourism product' and creating new markets for travel in others. Vulnerability is a powerful idiom, especially in the contemporary climate context that has come to imply crisis, change, uncertainty, and immediacy. Importantly, vulnerability also gestures unambiguously toward seemingly limitless scientific and even commercial opportunity. These developments come with new forms of expertise in the natural and social sciences and the travel industry, as well as with new or reinstated forms of inequity. As the areas of small island expertise increasingly overlap, they come to reproduce the very context and form of small islands themselves.

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Fragile Transfers

Index Insurance and the Global Circuits of Climate Risks in Senegal

Sara Angeli Aguiton

Abstract

In recent years, Senegal's developed a program of index insurance to cover farmers from economic losses due to drought. I investigate this emerging market in light of Jane Guyer's question: “What is a ‘risk’ as a transacted ‘thing’?” To grasp the social practices required to make “rainfall deficit” a transferable risk, I explore the climate and market infrastructure that brings it into existence and follows actors who function as brokers allowing the risk to circulate from Senegalese fields to the global reinsurance industry. I show that the strategies set up to convince farmers to integrate a green and rational capitalist management of climate risks are very fragile, and the index insurance program only endures because it is embedded in the broader political economy of rural development based on debt and international aid.

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Zapatista autonomy and the making of alter-native politics

Views from its day-to-day praxis

Sabrina Melenotte

Since 1994, the Zapatista political autonomy project has been claiming that “another world is possible”. This experience has influenced many intellectuals of contemporary radical social movements who see in the indigenous organization a new political alter-native. I will first explore some of the current theories on Zapatism and the crossing of some of authors into anarchist thought. The second part of the article draws on an ethnography conducted in the municipality of Chenalhó, in the highlands of Chiapas, to emphasize some of the everyday practices inside the self-proclaimed “autonomous municipality” of Polhó. As opposed to irenic theories on Zapatism, this article describes a peculiar process of autonomy and brings out some contradictions between the political discourse and the day-to-day practices of the autonomous power, focusing on three specific points linked to economic and political constraints in a context of political violence: the economic dependency on humanitarian aid and the “bureaucratic habitus”; the new “autonomous” leadership it involved, between “good government” and “good management”; and the internal divisions due to the return of some displaced members and the exit of international aid.

Open access

Leadership for education

Promoting inclusion and social innovation

Toyin Janet Aderemi, Patricia Rea Ángeles, Esther Benjamin, and Citlalli A. González H.

social development of nations and their peoples, the implementation of international aid, and development assistance. Global engagement—or what I'm calling “development 2.0”—is focused on equity, as we strive to uphold fairness and justice in our work

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Afterword

Humanitarianism, Between Situated Universality and Interventionist Universalism

Didier Fassin

for which the Republic of China substantially increased its international aid, donating material to one hundred and fifty countries and sending medical teams to twenty-seven of them, thus adding a new dimension to its so-called Silk Road Initiative

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Little Phil

Changing the Relationship between Philanthropy and Democracy?

Joshua Murchie and Jean-Paul Gagnon

. 1 Acts of such largesse by billionaires and hundred millionaires, plutocrats in short, “support public benefits of myriad kinds, including poverty relief, education, health care, cultural and artistic expression, international aid, and associational

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Local Faith Actors and the Global Compact on Refugees

Heather Wurtz and Olivia Wilkinson

and implemented by actors from across the global South, including actors inspired by faith ( Fiddian-Qasmiyeh 2018b ). However, international aid policies continue to reflect the perspectives and priorities of the global North ( Chimni 2018 ), limiting