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Decorating Mothers, Defining Maternity

The Invention of the French Family Medal and the Rise of Profamily Ideology in 1920s France

Hannah M. Stamler

during the interwar. 4 This article offers the first detailed analysis of the creation of this curious decoration, enriching work on late Third Republic natalism, maternalism, and feminism by interrogating the role of material culture in the CSN's quest

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Making Friends of the Nations

Australian Interwar Magazines and Middlebrow Orientalism in the Pacific

Victoria Kuttainen and Sarah Galletly

” (1). In the interwar period, as Australia took up a sub-imperial role in Melanesia; as public debate underscored an increasing awareness of Britain’s inadequacy in providing naval defense in the region; and as passenger liner traffic massified across

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The Little Entente of Women, Feminisms, Tensions, and Entanglements within the Interwar European Women's Movement

Krassimira Daskalova

, regional, and international women's movements and feminisms within their shared modernity during the interwar period, with its extreme and divisive nationalism. It is also interesting, for example, to observe how feminist and nationalist parlance came close

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Catholic Culture in Interwar France

Philip Nord

The interwar years have been characterized as a “watershed” in the history of French Catholicism,1 and it is not hard to see why. The Church had experienced the first decades of the Third Republic as a time of trial and persecution. World War I, however, gave believers reason to look forward to a brighter future. The republican establishment had welcomed the political representatives of Catholic opinion into the Union sacrée. The distress of soldiers and war widows had nourished a revival of popular faith.2 With the return of peace, the Catholic laity plunged into an associational activism of unprecedented proportions. The vaulting edifice of voluntary bodies they constructed reenergized the faith and at the same articulated a Catholic countervision of the proper constitution of la cité.

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Race and physical anthropology in interwar Austria

Margit Berner

This article focuses on interwar Austrian physical anthropology, tracing its scientific aspirations, gradual institutionalization, and wider popularization during the interwar period. Largely concentrated in Vienna, Austrian physical anthropologists debated racial questions extensively and conducted racial evaluations based on detailed morphological studies and in-depth analysis of facial "racial" traits. This method was considered ideal for genealogical studies. A host of new societies and working groups collaborated to develop new methodologies and create influential links to universities and public institutions. Within this context, a certificate or "proof of paternity" was developed to resolve disputed court cases. Not only did issuing these certificates become a key source of work and income for anthropologists and their organizations, they also marked the discipline's crucial shift from a theoretical to an applied science.

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Administering Vaccination in Interwar Algeria

Medical Auxiliaries, Smallpox, and the Colonial State in the Communes mixtes

Hannah-Louise Clark

interwar vaccination campaigns was no doubt informed by nationalist ideology, but it may also have been formed by the propaganda of a dying colonialism. During the Algerian War, claims to be providing health care were simultaneously claims to hold political

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Feminisms and Politics in the Interwar Period

The Little Entente of Women (1923–1938)

Katerina Dalakoura

to legislation on female sexuality, etc.), or their “political” character (their explicit or implicit relationship with political ideologies or political parties and groupings), both of which were the main features of interwar feminisms in all the

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Dressing the Modern Jewish Communist Girl in Interwar Paris

Nick Underwood

newspaper’s political and ethnic affiliation, we can read this interwar Modern Girl as more than just a workingwoman. She is a conscious worker aware of her class stature and trying to do something about it by engaging in contemporary bourgeois Parisian

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The End of Immunity? Recent Work on the Far Right in Interwar France

Sean Kennedy

Beginning in the 1980s, several historians began to challenge the view that fascism was a marginal phenomenon in interwar France, a view dubbed "the immunity thesis" by one of its critics. Surveying a range of works on far-Right intellectuals and movements during the 1920s and 1930s, this article suggests that "the immunity thesis" has been increasingly challenged by a variety of historians since the mid-1990s. However, a consensus on the issue has not emerged, as a number of historians stress the need to differentiate between fascism and other forms of right-wing nationalism in the French context. At the same time, there are signs that scholars are beginning to move beyond questions of categorization and address other themes relating to the inter-war Right. These new agendas have the potential to broaden our understanding of the late Third Republic in general.

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Malinowski and Mauss Exchanging Knowledge in Interwar Europe

Lessons in Internationalism

Leo Coleman

Interwar internationalist thinking has been closely scrutinised in an array of disciplines lately, often as a site of projects and ideas that shaped subsequent decolonisation, but also as a source of neglected political ideas and foreclosed but