The article explores some of the composite concepts of democracy that were used in Sweden, primarily by the Social Democrats during the interwar years. Should these be seen as pluralizations of the collective singular democracy or as something qualitatively new? By showing how these concepts relate to each other and to democracy as a whole, the article argues that they should be considered statements about democracy as one entity, that democracy did not only concern the political sphere, but was generally important throughout the whole of society. The article also examines the Swedish parliamentarians' attitudes toward democracy after the realization of universal suffrage, and argues that democracy was eventually perceived as such a positive concept that opponents of what was labeled democratic reforms had to reformulate the political issues into different words in order to avoid coming across as undemocratic.
Democracy in the Plural?
The Concepts of Democracy in Swedish Parliamentary Debates during the Interwar Years
Mobile Representations of a “New Pacific”
apparently successful “cross-racial paradise” and thus “an alternative racial destiny”—a powerful counterpoint to White Australia. 9 Indeed, for many commentators in the interwar years, these flourishing mixed populations, attenuating long-held fears of
“What to Do with the Girls?” The Legacy of Women Farm Workers in Britain, 1919–1939
the modern age threatened the beauty and tranquility of the countryside. For many, these ideals persisted throughout the interwar years. 64 As for making farm work more palatable, women were clearly informed that wages were not high, “but the work is
Hammer and Cycle
Communism's Cycling Counterculture in Interwar France
domestic and international matters, sports coverage in the interwar years served an ideological purpose. Moreover, L'Humanité' s interest in sport complemented the PCF's attempts to create its own revolutionary workers sports movement through the
Modern Women in a Modern State
Public Discourse in Interwar Yugoslavia on the Status of Women in Turkey (1923–1939)
. Turkey was a popular topic in the Yugoslav public discourse in the interwar years because Yugoslavia was a country deeply involved in Balkan political issues. The increasing interest in Turkey among the Yugoslav public began soon after the proclamation of
The Spectacular Traveling Woman
Australian and Canadian Visions of Women, Modernity, and Mobility between the Wars
culture outside the colonial center. This exploratory survey will concentrate on two mainstream magazines of the interwar years: Chatelaine (1928–) and The Australian Woman’s Mirror (1924–1961). Both magazines targeted a specifically female
Plea for a Collective Genetics
Another Reading of Sartre's Early Texts, 1926–1927
Grégory Cormann and translated by John H. Gillespie
been aware that Sartre's formation was tied up with the particular destiny of the collective enterprises drawing together the work of several leading psychological periodicals of the interwar years. Alongside Sartre's well-known interest in literary
Passenger Transport in Interwar Germany
The development of bus transport in European countries followed distinctly different paths. Unlike in the liberal economic regimes of the U.K. and the Netherlands, the German transport policy in the interwar years was characterized by a high degree of state intervention, of regulation and restrictions on inter-modal competition. The main purpose of the regulatory regime in Germany was to ensure the profitability of the national railroad, whereas the interests of passengers ranked second. Concessions for private inter-urban bus services were severely restricted by the political priorities for the railroad and the bus lines of the Postal Service.
Catholic Culture in Interwar France
The interwar years have been characterized as a “watershed” in the history of French Catholicism,1 and it is not hard to see why. The Church had experienced the first decades of the Third Republic as a time of trial and persecution. World War I, however, gave believers reason to look forward to a brighter future. The republican establishment had welcomed the political representatives of Catholic opinion into the Union sacrée. The distress of soldiers and war widows had nourished a revival of popular faith.2 With the return of peace, the Catholic laity plunged into an associational activism of unprecedented proportions. The vaulting edifice of voluntary bodies they constructed reenergized the faith and at the same articulated a Catholic countervision of the proper constitution of la cité.
The Rise of Danish Agrarian Liberalism
In the literature on European history, World War I and the interwar years are often portrayed as the end of the age of liberalism. The crisis of liberalism dates back to the nineteenth century, but a er the Great War, criticism of liberalism intensified. But the interwar period also saw a number of attempts to redefine the concept. This article focuses on the Danish case of this European phenomenon. It shows how a profound crisis of bourgeois liberalism in the late nineteenth century le the concept of liberalism almost deserted in the first decades of the twentieth century, and how strong state regulation of the Danish economy during World War I was crucial for an ideologization of the rural population and their subsequent orientation toward the concept of liberalism.