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Boys Left Behind

Gender Role Changes in Alaska

Judith Kleinfeld and Maria Elena Reyes

The gender gap in college enrollment and completion has become a concern in many nations. The phenomenon is extreme in Alaska, particularly among indigenous people. Semi-structured interviews with 162 urban and indigenous students graduating from high school, and in addition, two single-gender focus groups, suggest that many young men do not see a college education as necessary to financial success and do not expect to assume the gender role of sole family provider. Young women tend to see a college degree as essential to changed gender roles where women are expected to attend college, pursue a career, and not be dependent on a man for financial support. Many young men withdraw from the demands of a verbally-saturated high school curriculum, which they find unenjoyable. Both young men and young women tend to label male withdrawal from school as “male laziness,” an essentialist interpretation rather than an interpretation based on the school environment and changing gender roles.

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Tajik Male Labour Migration and Women Left Behind

Can They Resist Gender and Generational Hierarchies?

Mary Elaine Hegland

Poverty and unemployment send at least one million Tajiks to Russia for low-level labour migration. The migrants, mainly male, leave women behind to manage on their own. As a result, women have to work all the harder to try to feed themselves and their children, often against great odds. Male migrant labour to Russia, along with unemployment, alcoholism, drug dependency and other problems, also results in a shortage of marriageable males. This is a serious problem because Tajiks expect girls to marry early. Globalisation, poverty and male labour migration serve to exacerbate existing gender and generational hierarchies.

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The Social Consequences of Brexit for the UK and Europe

Euroscepticism, Populism, Nationalism, and Societal Division

Steve Corbett

This article examines the 2016 Referendum on the United Kingdom’s membership of the European Union and draws on initial research into the reasons that the UK voted to leave and demographics of the leave vote. This initial analysis suggests that the Brexit (British Exit) vote reveals wider and deeper societal tensions along the lines of age, class, income, and education (Goodwin and Heath 2016). By providing an account of the background and events of the referendum, this article asserts that the vote was a case study in populist right-wing Eurosceptic discourse (Leconte 2010; Taggart 2004), but it also reveals strong elements of English nationalism (including British exceptionalism and social conservatism) in parts of British society (Henderson et al. 2016; Wellings 2010). Given this, the article begins to make sense of Brexit from a social quality perspective and outlines a possible social quality approach to the UK and Europe post-Brexit.

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Eloquent Fragments

French Fiction Film and Globalization

Martin O'Shaughnessy

I will begin this piece with two contradictory observations that I will later try to reconcile.1 The first is that neoliberal globalization is deeply resistant to representation within the framework of conventional fiction. The second is that, following its much trumpeted return to the real in the 1990s, French cinema could not avoid figuring the consequences of that same capitalist globalization. Reconciliation of this paradox will lead to the suggestion that French (or rather Franco-Belgian) cinema has above all focused on the fragments left behind once globalization has passed through the social terrain. But, far from producing a satisfactory solution, this reconciliation only opens onto a dilemma.

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Maria Kostaridou

In the spring of 1952, the Greek poet George Seferis, then acting as a counsellor at the Greek Embassy in London, gave a brief talk on BBC Radio on 'A Greek in the England of 1545' (Seferis 1981).1 The Greek of the title was Nikandros Noukios, a native of Corfu and resident of Venice, who, in the middle of the sixteenth century, travelled extensively in Europe, eventually crossing the English Channel and reaching the British Isles. Rather unusually, he also left behind a three-volume narrative of his travels, entitled Apodemiai.

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Vladimir Arsenyev

Explorer and Researcher of the Tungus-Manchu Peoples and Their Languages

Albina Girfanova

This article deals with the eminent Russian explorer, ethnographer, naturalist, and geographer Vladimir Arsenyev. He devoted thirty years to researching the Russian Far East, in particular the Ussuri taiga, and to documenting the lives and customs of the region’s inhabitants and their surroundings. The article focuses on the linguistic activities of Arsenyev, who simultaneously studied the local Tungus-Manchu (Udeghe and Oroch) languages and left behind unique materials. Its goal is to move beyond a consideration of Arsenyev’s novel Dersu Uzala to consider Arsenyev’s writing in his expedition journals, and demonstrate the differences between the actual Dersu Uzala and the literary character.

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Susana Weich-Shahak

This article deals with the Judeo-Spanish musico-poetic repertoire narrating the emigration of Sephardi Jews to Israel. These events find their expression either in original musico-poetic compositions or in melodies borrowed from well known popular songs but with the addition of new words in Judeo-Spanish. The repertoire encompasses various phases of the migration phenomenon including the problem of obtaining official entry to Palestine during the British Mandate, the despair of those left behind in the Sephardi diaspora and the difficulties associated with new trades, both rural and urban. This repertoire of migration songs shows, once again, the creative vitality of the Sephardi Jews.

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“Clear and Present Danger”

The Legacy of the 1917 Espionage Act in the United States

Petra DeWitt

During the Great War the frenzy to control opposition to war resulted in several efforts to limit freedom of speech. State legislation, gubernatorial proclamations, and municipal ordinances had the immediate impact of controlling dissent, but the cessation of the war ended such activities. Congressional passage of the Espionage Act in 1917 changed this dynamic and left behind a long-term legacy. Several cases argued on behalf of defendants imprisoned for opposing the nation’s war effort arrived at the United States Supreme Court for review. Justices for the first time defined the boundaries of the First Amendment by arguing that expressions could pose a “clear and present danger” during a national crisis. This interpretation has led to passage of recent legislation, including the USA PATRIOT Act, and has been used to justify the arrest of individuals who leak sensitive information.

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Reassembling The Social Organization

Collaboration and Digital Media in (Re)making Boas’s 1897 Book

Aaron Glass, Judith Berman and Rainer Hatoum

Franz Boas’s 1897 monograph The Social Organization and the Secret Societies of the Kwakiutl Indians was a landmark in anthropology for its integrative approach to ethnography, the use of multiple media, and the collaborative role of Boas’s Indigenous partner, George Hunt. Not only did the volume draw on existing museum collections from around the world, but the two men also left behind a vast and now widely distributed archive of unpublished materials relevant to the creation and afterlife of this seminal text. This article discusses an international and intercultural project to create a new, annotated critical edition of the book that reassembles the dispersed materials and reembeds them within Kwakwaka’wakw ontologies of both persons and things. The project mobilizes digital media to link together disparate collections, scholars, and Indigenous communities in order to recuperate long-dormant ethnographic records for use in current and future cultural revitalization.

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Lionel Blue

In this article, Lionel Blue contemplates approaching the end of life. The rabbinic tradition describes this world as a ‘prozdor’, a corridor to the world to come. We are ‘in between’ creations, with a toehold in heaven, yet intimations of heaven can be found in this life. As for dying, that can be a messy business. ‘I do not like the pain which accompanies all transformation.’ Dying is very different in the experience of those who are left behind, who wish to hold on to the one who is dying, whereas the latter may need silent companionship and permission to depart. Lionel offers some personal stratagems for dealing with old age. Indulge yourself and treat yourself insofar as your medication allows. Treasure friendships. Keep up your conversation with God.