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(Not) Becoming the Norm

Military Service by Religious Israeli Women as a Process of Social Legitimation

Elisheva Rosman-Stollman

legitimation. While previous scholarship (e.g., Budaie-Hyman 2012 ; Rosman-Stollman 2009 ; Sela 2012 ) has treated the issue of religious female military service in the socio-religious context, the present article places it within a broader context

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Measuring the Sacred

Research Notes on the Use of Science by Adherents of New Spiritualities in Poland

Dorota Hall

The essay presents exemplary cases for the use of scientific accessories, such as a specialist vocabulary and sophisticated technical tools, in Polish holistic milieus. It analyses editorials published in the esoteric monthly Nieznany Świat, and refers to materials gathered during ethnographic fieldwork among vendors and customers of alternative medicine fairs and esoteric shops in Warsaw, as well as visitors to the Węsiory village, considered to be one of Earth's 'power places'. The work goes on the claim that references to science, and especially to various measurements, besides their legitimating function, appeal to sensitivity related to traditional folk religiosity. Therefore, the Nieznany Świat magazine might be considered a continuer of the folk tradition.

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A Legitimate Freedom Approach to Sustainability

Sen, Scanlon and the Inadequacy of the Human Development Index

Andrew Crabtree

Although the capability approach has had a tremendous impact on the development debate, it has had little to say about sustainable development. As several Human Development Reports have maintained, the last twenty years' gains in human development are not sustainable. The failure to include an integrate sustainability into the Human Development Index would thus give the wrong policy message. Drawing on the works of Amartya Sen and Thomas Scanlon, this article argues that sustainable development can be seen as a process of increasing legitimate freedoms, the freedoms that others cannot reasonably reject. Thus, Sen's vision of development as freedom is amended to suggest limits to freedoms. Forms of development which are not sustainable can be reasonably rejected due, at least, to the harm and blighting entailed. Based on this, it is argued that at country level of comparison the Human Development Index should be combined with the Ecological Footprint to reflect sustainability, and that the Human Development Reports should give way to Sustainable Development Reports.

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Legitimate Suspicions? Berlusconi and the Judges

David Nelken

The relationship in the course of 2002 between Silvio Berlusconi’s

government and the judges was one of continued and unrelenting

conflict. Few days passed wherein justice was not a central news item.

Accounts of battles between the government and the judiciary carried

titles such as “the duel,” and offered complex descriptions of the

moves and countermoves, in both Parliament and the courts, involving

the government, the opposition, judges, prosecutors, lawyers, and

the accused. Cases of political, administrative, and business corruption

still came to light from different parts of the country, such as

Turin, Milan, Potenza, Salerno, and Agrigento. But the heady days of

Tangentopoli were long over: it was now the judges who were themselves

under attack. For most of the year, Berlusconi and his associates

cast themselves in the role of victims by arguing that they were

being prosecuted and tried by politically and personally biased judges.

The judiciary was made the object of co-ordinated mass media campaigns

that set out in particular to discredit the Milan court and more

generally to show that when judges’ actions were effective, they were

often illegitimate, and that when they were legitimate, they were usually

not effective. Although some of the printed media still gave

unswerving support to the judges, there was little doubt that the initiative

had passed to the government and its parliamentary majority.

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Justice Reforms? Wiretapping, Legitimate Impediment, Short Trials

Patrizia Pederzoli

At first sight, 2010 could be called the annus horribilis for the Italian

justice system, given all the turbulence surrounding it, whether

it was deliberately caused or not. Let us straightaway recall some of

the main causes of the turbulence. Some of the most important legislative

provisions made by the government in this sector, including

measures on wiretapping, legitimate impediment, and short trials,

have led to bitter reactions on the national stage—even on the part of

many magistrates—that have also been echoed in European circles. On

issues regarding legality and justice, there has also been some internal

debate within the center-right, where the lack of cohesion, including

in other areas of the program, has contributed to its partial breakup.

This has created the widely felt belief today that there will be an

early end to the legislature, notwithstanding the comfortable majority

gained in 2008 by the coalition led by Silvio Berlusconi and the vote

of confidence obtained on 14 December 2010, both in the Senate and

in the Chamber, albeit in the latter with a majority of just three votes.

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Finally, Militarism Is a Legitimate Term

Yoram Peri

David Greenblum, From the Heroism of the Spirit to the Sanctification of Power: Power and Heroism in Religious Zionism between 1948 and 1968 (Tel Aviv: Open University, 2016).

Uri S. Cohen, The Security Style and the Hebrew Culture of War (Jerusalem: Bialik Institute, 2017).

Dan Arev, Dying to Watch: War, Memory, and Television in Israel 1967–1991 (Tel Aviv: Resling, 2017).

Dalia Gavriely-Nuri, Tel Aviv Was Also Once an Arab Village: The Normalization of the Territories in Israeli Discourse, 1967 (Cambridge, MA: Israel Academic Press, 2017).

Nitza Ben-Dov, The Life of War: On the Military, Revenge, Loss, and War Consciousness in Israeli Prose (Jerusalem: Schocken Books, 2016).

Haya Milo, Songs Through the Barrel of the Gun: Israeli Soldiers’ Folk Songs (Tel Aviv: Open University, 2017).

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LiGeng, . 2019. Fate calculation experts: diviners seeking legitimation in contemporary China. New York: Berghahn Books. 158 pp. Hb.: US$110.00. ISBN: 9781785339943.

Min Zhang

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European Bodies

Who Embodies europe? Explorations into the Construction of european Bodies

Anika Keinz and Paweł Lewicki

focus on different forms of europeanisation and embodiment and suggest we explore the work of imperial legacies ( Stoler 2013a ) ethnographically in the production of the legitimate – precious and prosperous – european bodies (see also Hirschkind 2011

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Unreasonable rage, disobedient dissent

The social construction of student activists and the limits of student engagement

Jessica Gagnon

certain students as legitimately engaged in higher education whilst delegitimising other student activities such as protests. In the following sections, I discuss some of the existing student engagement literature, especially the literature focused on

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Redeveloping history in postsocialist Poland

Jaro Stacul

, they have to legitimate themselves and reorder people’s meaningful worlds. An essential component of self-legitimation is the production of places of memory that would help forge a shared local or national identity. In the context of this process, the