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Patrick Point

The preservation of wetland ecosystem services has become a real issue for public policies. This article considers the question from the point of view of the provisioning and maintenance of a public good. It examines the production conditions and welfare savings involved when the value of ecosystem services is taken into account. The analysis shows that doing so can enable losers to be compensated and a net social surplus to be obtained. The study applies this approach to the estuarine wetland of Gironde, France, by studying the Associations Syndicales de Propriétaires (ASPs), the production units of ecosystem services. The article first describes the emergence of this type of organization, and then it uses a sample of them (20 out of 53), to analyze their investments and maintenance costs. It shows the likely presence of economies of scale and the very interesting results of ASPs in terms of low costs.

Spanish La conservación de servicios ecosistémicos derivados de las zonas húmedas (humedales), se ha convertido en un tema relevante para las políticas públicas. Este artículo considera esta cuestión desde el punto de vista del abastecimiento y del mantenimiento de un bien colectivo. El autor examina las condiciones de la producción y las ganancias en bienestar implicadas cuando el valor de los servicios ecosistémicos se toma en cuenta. En el texto se muestra que la consideración de estos valores permite compensar las pérdidas y asegurar una ganancia neta. El autor aplica este enfoque a los humedales del estuario de la Gironde, Francia, a traves del estudio de las unidades de producción de servicios ecosistémicos también conocidas como Asociaciones Sindicales de Propietarios (ASP). Este trabajo describe en primer lugar la emergencia de este tipo de organización, y después selecciona una muestra de ellos (20 de 53 ASP), para analizar sus costos de inversiones y mantenimiento. El artículo muestra la probable presencia de economías de escala y el interesante desempeño de las ASP en función de bajos costos.

French La préservation des services écosystémiques délivrés par les zones humides mobilise les politiques publiques. Nous considérons la question sous l'angle de la fourniture et de la maintenance d'un bien collectif. Nous examinons les conditions de la production et les gains en bien-être associés à la prise en compte de la valeur de ces services d'origine écosystémique. On montre notamment que cette prise en considération conduit à des situations qui permettent de compenser les perdants et d'assurer un gain net. Dans le cas des marais estuariens de la Gironde, nous nous attachons à l'étude des unités de production de ces services que sont les Associations syndicales de propriétaires (ASP). Nous rendons compte de l'émergence de cette forme d'organisation et analysons à partir d'un échantillon de 20 ASP - sur les 53 recensées dans la zone d'étude - les coûts de maintenance et d'investissement. Nous montrons la probable présence d'économies d'échelle et les intéressantes performances en termes de coût des ASP.

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Tricking Time, Overthrowing a Regime

Reining in the Future in the Yemeni Youth Revolution

Ross Porter

Based on research at the heart of the 2011 revolution in Yemen, this article explores how a capacity to inhabit the future culminated in a collective act of temporal deception on the part of the revolutionaries. Contrary to the prevalent assumption that the future is something that is worked towards, aspired to, emerging or lying in wait at the end of a distant telos, revolutionary life in Yemen asserts that the future can itself be a way of being, but in the present. Upholding the future involved dramatic acts of selflessness whose value lay not just in where they would lead, but in the acts themselves. This fusion of means and ends, presents and futures, ultimately bred a capacity for endurance that defied the temporal expectations of the regime.

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Language Ideologies at Work

Economies of Yupik Language Maintenance and Loss

Daria Morgounova Schwalbe

Using an ethnography of speaking approach, this article discusses the ideological aspects of language practices, as they are played out in a traditional Yupik (Eskimo) village in Chukotka, in the Far East of the Russian Federation. The article shows how local linguistic practices and language choices of individual speakers intersect with purist language ideologies, which frame certain beliefs about languages and ways of speaking, making them appear more normal and appropriate than others. Placing the “work of speaking” within the context of cross-cultural dynamics and purist language economies, this article challenges the basic assumption of linguistic purism about language and identity being intertwined.

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Kazuko Suzuki

What accounts for varying forms of adaptation of immigrants to host countries? Despite their common ethnic origin, Korean immigrants demonstrate very different adaptation pa erns in Japan and the United States. By elucidating the importance of different national peculiarities in racial ideology, this article argues that Korean immigrants are racialized differently given different circumstances and structural conditions in these two countries. Employing a cross-national comparison focusing on a single ethnic group, this study shows that cultural and racial similarities between immigrants and the mainstream of the host society do not guarantee smooth assimilation. This article concludes that in the long run, differences in modes of incorporation are more relevant to immigrant adaptation than visible racial or cultural differences between the immigrants and the mainstream of the host society.

Spanish ¿Cómo se explican las diversas formas de adaptación de inmigrantes en los países receptores? A pesar de su origen étnico común, los inmigrantes coreanos han mostrado patrones de adaptación muy diferentes en Japón y los Estados Unidos. Al mostrar la importancia de las diferentes peculiaridades nacionales en la ideología racial, este artículo argumenta que los inmigrantes coreanos son racializados diferencialmente de acuerdo a las distintas circunstancias y las condiciones estructurales en estos dos países. A través de una comparación transnacional centrada en un solo grupo étnico, este estudio muestra que las similitudes raciales y culturales entre los inmigrantes y la mayoría de la sociedad de acogida, no garantizan una fácil asimilación. En este artículo se concluye que, en el largo plazo, las diferencias en los modos de incorporación son más relevantes para la adaptación de los inmigrantes que las visibles diferencias raciales / culturales entre los inmigrantes y la generalidad de la sociedad receptora.

French Comment expliquer les formes variables de l'adaptation des immigrants dans le pays hôte ? En dépit de leur origine ethnique commune, les immigrants coréens ont montré des modes d'adaptation très différents au Japon et aux Etats-Unis. En montrant l'importance de certaines particularités nationales pour l'idéologie raciale, cet article soutient que ces immigrants coréens sont racialement différenciés en fonction des situations et des conditions structurelles différentes dans ces deux pays. Par le biais d'une comparaison transnationale portant sur un seul groupe ethnique, ce e étude montre que les similarités culturelles et raciales entre les immigrants et la société-hôte traditionnelle ne sont pas les garantes d'une assimilation aisée. Cet article conclut que, sur le long-terme, les modes d'incorporation sont plus importants pour l'adaptation des immigrants que les différences raciales/culturelles visibles entre les immigrants et la société traditionnelle de l'Etat-hôte.

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Jonathan Olsen and Dan Hough

This article analyses the development of Left Party/PDS-SPD coalitions in the eastern German Länder. It develops an explanatory framework based on attempts to understand how red-green coalitions came into being in the 1990s. The article concludes that red-red coalitions emerge when four basic criteria are fulfilled: the SPD has few other viable potential coalition options and believes it can gain in strategic terms; the ideological distance between the Left Party/PDS and SPD is small; and the personal relationships between Land-level leaders are good. The paper also argues that the heterogeneity of the Left Party/PDS is likely to ensure that Land-specific solutions to Land-specific coalition dilemmas are very likely to remain of significance in the future.

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School History Atlases as Instruments of Nation-State Making and Maintenance

A Remark on the Invisibility of Ideology in Popular Education

Tomasz Kamusella

School history atlases are used almost exclusively as required textbooks in Central and Eastern Europe, where the model of the ethnolinguistic nation-state rules supreme. My hypothesis is that these atlases are used in this region because a graphic presentation of the past makes it possible for students to grasp the idea of the presumably "natural" or "inescapable" overlapping of historical, linguistic, and demographic borders, the striving for which produced the present-day ethnolinguistic nation-states. Conversely, school history atlases provide a framework to indoctrinate the student with the beliefs that ethnolinguistic nationalism is the sole correct kind of nationalism, and that the neighboring polities have time and again unjustly denied the "true and natural" frontiers to the student's nation-state.

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Tony Roberts and Michael Bartholomew-Biggs

The Noir américain: In which He Howls at the Moon & Digs Bill Evans Matthew Arnold in New York Harriet and the Crow by TONY ROBERTS

Biro Preventive Maintenance by MICHAEL BARTHOLOMEW-BIGGS

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Assessing Museums Online

The Digital Heritage Sustainability (DHS) Framework

Ana Luisa Sánchez Laws

Digital materials, the primary resources for the production of contemporary culture, have brought many challenges to the heritage sector in relation to their curation, conservation, and dissemination. Digital heritage sustainability involves practices that help ensure the maintenance, enrichment, and enjoyment of digital heritage resources over periods of time that span across generations. The digital heritage sustainability (DHS) framework presented in this article provides an analytic basis for understanding the challenges associated with the use of digital materials in museums and for assessing how digital heritage resources can be sustained over time. As an example of use, the framework is applied to the Museum of London's digital resources.

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Agnes G. Loeffler

This article offers an analysis of two medical case histories presented by an Iranian allopathic physician to illustrate the power of diet in the management of disease. Uncovering underlying cultural assumptions about health and health maintenance strategies leads to the following insights: (1) Galenic medical ideas have not been replaced by allopathic theories in the world view of Iranian physicians; (2) allopathic medical treatment options (pharmaceuticals) are applied to indigenous disease categories; (3) there is deep-seated scepticism about etiologic theories of allopathic medicine and its ability to treat certain conditions; (4) the authority of allopathic medicine is not unquestioned in Iran.

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Anke Hassel

German unification acted as a catalyst for the substantial transformation of the German welfare and employment regime which has taken place over the last two decades. The changes can be described as a process of a partial liberalization of the labor market within the boundaries of a coordinated industrial relations system and a conservative welfare state. This article depicts the transformation as a trend towards a more liberal welfare and employment regime by focusing on the shifting boundaries between status and income maintenance and poor relief systems.