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Guy Lurie

This article unveils a virtually unknown chapter in the history of judicial diversity in Israel. During its first 20 years of existence, between 1948 and 1968, only three Arab judges were appointed. Then, within two years, between 1968 and 1969, Israel appointed three additional Arab judges. Two interconnected changes account for this small increase in judicial diversity. First, in the 1960s, the Arab legal elite began to exert pressure on Israeli officials to appoint Arab judges. Second, perhaps partly due to this pressure, the Judicial Selection Committee made having a diverse judiciary a top priority. This historical example teaches us that without outside pressure, the Judicial Selection Committee does not look on diversity as an important consideration, using the merit system of appointment as an excuse for its failure. Indeed, up to the present day, the Israeli judiciary has relatively few Arab judges.

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Rights to Recognition

Minority/Indigenous Politics in the Emerging Taiwanese Nationalism

Kun-hui Ku

The demand for rights to recognition among the indigenous activists in Taiwan was part of a larger movement for democratization before the lifting of martial law and was supported by international concurrence. The transfer of power from the Nationalist Party (KMT) regime to the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) marks a rising consciousness of Taiwanese nationalism. By examining public discourses/rituals and the debates about the organizational reforms, I show how the changing perceptions and status of the indigenous population within the state are used to legitimize the new national identity. By examining the political processes involved in the politics of recognition, on the other hand, I also explore how the indigenous activists exploit to their advantage opportunities that have arisen during the national restructuring.

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The “Moral Effect” of Legalized Lawlessness

Violence in Britain’s Twentieth-Century Empire

Caroline Elkins

martial law into emergency regulations, or statutory martial law, as well as the parallel consolidation of military doctrine and law around the issues of force. These reinforcing processes unfolded from the turn of the nineteenth century and continued

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Making Space for Sanctions

The Economics of German Natural Gas Imports from Russia, 1982 and 2014 Compared

Stephen G. Gross

relations with Russia after a preceding period of growing economic interconnectivity— Ostpolitik in the 1970s and a wave of German investment in Russia in the 2000s. The crushing of Solidarity and imposition of martial law in Poland generated tensions

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Avery Poole

Myanmar); multiparty presidential democracies (Indonesia and the Philippines); and a multiparty parliamentary democracy which has been under martial law since May 2014 (Thailand). Indonesia, the Philippines and Thailand are often referred to as democratic

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Philippine Prison Marriages

The Politics of Kinship and Women's Composite Agency

Sif Lehman Jensen

,000. The community was originally an informal settlement of some 20 Muslim families, which gained official status as a subdivision in 1973 during the early stage of martial law, which was declared partly as President Ferdinand Marcos's response to the

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Liberal Whispers and Propaganda Fears

The American Jewish Committee and Israel’s Palestinian Minority, 1948–1966

Geoffrey P. Levin

American Jews engaged with Israel regarding the state’s treatment of its Palestinian-Arab citizens during the period of the military government (1948–1966). The military government refers to a form of martial law that applied to most Palestinian Arabs who

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Dynamics of Multidimensional Interaction

The Beijing Upheaval of 1989 Revisited

Rilly Chen and Fei Yan

escalation. Li used his authority as premier to declare martial law in late May and to order the 4 June military crackdown against student demonstrators in Tiananmen Square. Despite most of Li's accounts following the official party verdict on the protests

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Peter Herrmann

generations of human rights as outlined by Vasak (1977: 29) ; what he is looking at is the direction and scope of societal contestations and their resolutions. Instead, referring to Jhering, we may speak of a kind of martial law, or better, law as book of

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Jillian Schwedler

widespread popular opposition to Jordan joining the Baghdad Pact in 1955. With the establishment of martial law in 1957, large-scale disruptive protests in the downtown area largely disappeared, although small protests were held elsewhere, notably in refugee