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To Bear Witness After the Era of the Witness

The Projects of Christophe Boltanski and Ivan Jablonka

Donald Reid

Abstract

This essay examines how two French individuals in the third generation of Holocaust victims/survivors, Christophe Boltanski and Ivan Jablonka, research and present their grandparents and how they challenge contemporary memory culture. Their works differ in their ambitions and the strategies used to achieve them, but both Boltanski and Jablonka take the most disrespected of historical genres, the history of the author’s family, and reveal its potential in an arena where the duty to remember what was done to Jews as a group can obscure the complex individuals who were victims. These forgotten selves and what they reveal about the societies in which they lived are the subject of Boltanski’s and Jablonka’s work. Particular attention is devoted to the Communist parties in Poland and France and the relations of their grandparents to them.

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Katharina Gerstenberger

Between the end of the Cold War in 1989 and the sixtieth anniversary of the end of World War II more than fifteen years later, Germany witnessed not only a proliferation of events and experiences to be remembered but also of traditions of memory. Before the fall of the wall, remembrance of the past in West Germany meant, above all, commemoration of the Nazi past and the memory of the Holocaust. Germany's unification had a significant impact on cultural memory not only because the fall of the wall itself was an event of memorable significance but also because it gave new impulses to debates about the politics of memory.

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Cornelia Wilhelm

This article explores the changing perception of "diversity" and "cultural difference" in Germany and shows how they were central in the construction of "self" and "other" throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries affecting minorities such as Jews, Poles, and others. It examines different levels of legal and political action toward minorities and immigrants in this process and explores how the perception and legal framework for the Turkish minority in the past sixty years was influenced by historical patterns of such perceptions and their memory. The article tries to shed some light on how the nature of coming-to-terms with the past ( Vergangenheitsbewältigung ) and the memory of the Holocaust have long prohibited a broader discussion on inclusion and exclusion in German society. It makes some suggestions as to what forced Germans in the postunification era to reconsider legislation, as well as society's approach to "self" and "other" under the auspices of the closing of the "postwar period" and a newly emerging united Europe.

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Jutta Helm

This article examines the German response to Rwanda's genocide, an important concern that previous research largely has ignored. Like the United States, Great Britain, France (up to mid-June l994) and other powers, Germany chose the role of bystander, observing and condemning the genocide, but failing to act. At first glance, this might appear unsurprising. The frequently cited "culture of reticence" in foreign affairs would seem to explain this posture of inaction. However, a second look uncovers several factors that could lead one to expect a German engagement in efforts to halt the genocide. By l994, Germany had contributed military and medical units to ten humanitarian efforts, including two United Nations missions in Cambodia (1991-1993) and in Somalia (1992-1994). Moreover, the Federal Republic's staunch support for human rights, as well as its considerable diplomatic and foreign aid presence in Rwanda, might have suggested a visible response to the mounting evidence of genocide. Why did this not occur? Why was there so little public discussion of German obligations to take steps to halt the genocide? On the one hand, answers to these questions are important in order to test previous research on the factors that led to states' participation in humanitarian interventions. On the other, they are significant for the inner-German debate about history and memory. Can the memory of the Holocaust inform debates about Germany's international obligations? How and under what circumstances might considerations of political morality shape foreign policy decisions?

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Lia Friesem

and cultural life ( Klar et al. 2013 ). Israeli society maintains a powerful and living collective memory of the Holocaust ( Yair 2014 ), expanding its meanings and applications, and utilizing all national and institutional mechanisms to preserve and

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Between Resistance and the State

Caribbean Activism and the Invention of a National Memory of Slavery in France

Itay Lotem

executives despite legal amnesties. 25 Subsequently, the Gayssot Law that had penalized “négationnisme” in 1990 reflected another level of state recognition of the importance of the memory of the Holocaust. 26 As Antillean politicians sought legal

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Dan Rabinowitz, Russell Stone, Guy Ben-Porat, Paul Scham, Wilhelm Kempf, Lior Libman, and Asaf Sharabi

Israeli political establishment is exploiting the memory of the Holocaust as a means for mobilizing international support for Israel’s deeds or curbing criticisms levelled against Israel for its misdeeds” (9n). This introduction is followed by four

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“Eyes Shut, Muted Voices”

Narrating and Temporalizing the Post–Civil War Era through a Monument

Dimitra Gefou-Madianou

second critical event, enfolded in the first one: the torching of the village by the Nazis and the ensuing civil war. My interest in this issue was triggered by the raising of a monument in memory of theholocaust’ or ‘tragedy of 1944’, referred to by

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A Totem and a Taboo

Germans and Jews Re-enacting Aspects of the Holocaust

Jeremy Schonfield

. It concluded with quotations from Freud’s ‘Mourning and Melancholia’ 1 introduced to support the view that the memory of the Holocaust should not be resolved by mourning, but should remain ‘an illness, a mental disorder that we may never cease to

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Black October

Comics, Memory, and Cultural Representations of 17 October 1961

Claire Gorrara

prompted readers to consider the commonalities between these treatments of marginalized social groups during national crises. Daeninckx used generic conventions of the crime novel to bring memories of the Holocaust and the Algerian War into dialogue, an