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Thijs Schut

Development discourses often assume linear rural transitions, in which educated young people are supposed to leave their rural communities, becoming urban. However, drawing on fieldwork in Flores (East Indonesia), I argue that tertiary educated young people do return to their natal communities upon graduation. There, they want to act—by virtue of their education—as vanguards of positive change and alter what they consider backward, rural livelihoods and practices. Yet, educated young people often depend on these livelihoods and practices, too, especially when they cannot obtain work, which is common in rural Flores. To better understand the tensions inherent to these young people’s position within their rural communities, I map the reasons for their returns to rural Flores.

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Gramsci in and beyond resistances

The search for an autonomous political initiative among a subaltern group in the Beninese savanna

Riccardo Ciavolella

modernizing discourses as an attempt to tactically solve the moral ambiguity that we have previously seen among the Fulani, leading society toward change and development while rhetorically insisting on ethnic identity, cultural values, and traditions. In a

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Franco Ruzzenenti and Aleksandra Wagner

part of the modernization discourse, which treats economic growth and technological development as autotelic values ( Nisbet 1980 ). Howard Geller, in an article published in Energy Policy in 2006, writes emphatically, “Without energy efficiency

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Modern Women in a Modern State

Public Discourse in Interwar Yugoslavia on the Status of Women in Turkey (1923–1939)

Anđelko Vlašić

modernity on the model of Western countries, including the shaping of a “modern woman,” resulted in Turkey becoming a pivotal part of the Western modernization discourse. 13 The Yugoslav public discourse too formed part of this phenomenon and exhibited some

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The Amāra on the Square

Connective Agency and the Aesthetics of the Egyptian Revolution

Ayman El-Desouky

, modernizing discourses of historians, intellectuals, and politicians. The creative practices during and after the Egyptian revolution of 25 January 2011 have had their precedents, of course, in various forms of popular culture and verbal and visual political