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Gülcan Kolay

« Les mules ont fait, à nouveau, la une de la presse, étant maintenant elles-mêmes l’objet de la brutalité de l’Etat: au moins dix d’entre elles ont été tuées par des soldats. Ceci n’est pas une exception: souvent, quand les contrebandiers sont pris

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The Mule Caravans of Western Yunnan

An Oral History of the Muleteers of Zhaozhou

Ma Jianxiong and Ma Cunzhao

Mule caravans established a network across physical, political, and ethnic boundaries that integrated Southwest China, Southeast Asia, and Tibet. This article is a first exploration of this little-known mobile network. Based mainly on oral history, it focuses on the mule caravans based in Zhaozhou in western Yunnan from the late Qing to the 1940s, when the first motor roads were constructed. The investigation assembles horse and mule technologies and trade organization in detail in order to reconstruct the role and standing of transporters and their networks in local society, in the regional setting, in a volatile political environment, and in the face of challenging natural conditions.

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Pushkar Sohoni

early twentieth century, and mules and their military handlers were transported to the Greek Mediterranean. This article highlights the role of humans as part of this technology, an aspect that is often neglected, with the help of three case studies

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The Distant Sound of Mule Caravan Bells

Interview with Mr Li Zhengxiong, 19 August 2003 at Sanyi North Village, Heqing County, Yunnan

Ma Cunzhao

Sanyi consists of two villages, a northern and a southern one. In the Republican period (1912–1949) there was a “cauldron boss”1 in charge of the “northern caravan” by the name of Tenth Sister, who hailed from Sanyi North. Th e author came to the village to meet Mr Li Zhengxiong (Bai nationality, 78 years old), a grandnephew of Tenth Sister. Th e following is Mr Li’s account:

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Elena Salerno

By the mid-nineteenth century, the territory of present-day Argentina was still a sparsely settled network of towns beyond which lived some native peoples. In 1860 the incomplete Martin de Moussy survey estimated a total population of about 1 million inhabitants; a decade later the first national census recorded about 1.8 million. Halperin Donghi summarizes the situation in “A Nation for the Argentine Desert,” the prologue to his classic work about this period.1 At that time, the country lacked roads, and the traditional transport system, as Enrique M. Barba describes in a pioneering book, consisted of cart tracks that were impassable during the rainy season, and some staging posts that provided rudimentary services for long-distances travelers.2 Indigenous trails trodden by livestock, called rastrilladas, supplemented them.3 Years later, Cristian Werckenthie studied the traditional transport of the pampas. Bullock carts were the principal means of transport; elsewhere, mule trains were the norm.

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Afterword

Dangerous Mobilities

Mimi Sheller

’s M1 Motorway (Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2007). 2 Tim Edensor, From Light to Dark: Daylight, Illumination, and Gloom (Minneapolis: Minnesota University Press, 2017). 3 Jacob Shell, Transportation and Revolt: Pigeons, Mules, Canals, and the

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Judith A. Nicholson and Mimi Sheller

Society and Space 28, no. 1 (January 2010): 17–31; and Jacob Shell, Transportation and Revolt: Pigeons, Mules, Canals, and the Vanishing Geographies of Subversive Mobility (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2015). 8 See, for example, classics such as Doreen

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Heidi Morrison, James S. Finley, Daniel Owen Spence, Aaron Hatley, Rachael Squire, Michael Ra-shon Hall, Stéphanie Vincent-Geslin, Sibo Chen, Tawny Andersen and Stéphanie Ponsavady

rapid-fire passage in which the Joad family attempts to trade their two prized mules for a car. “Didn’t nobody tell you this is the machine age?” asks the salesman incredulously. “They don’t use mules for nothing but glue no more.” 1 Gijs Mom quotes the

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The Corpus Christi Devotion

Gender, Liturgy, and Authority among Dominican Nuns in Castile in the Middle Ages

Mercedes Pérez Vidal

circulating concerning the miracle of the mule of Saint Antonio di Padua. 25 This was also the case of the tomb of San Raymond of Peñafort in the cathedral of Barcelona. 26 In any case, both of these examples, as well as the aforementioned of Vallbona de les

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Chung-Hao Ku

ruined hotel, the mule, John Brown, even dies in a ghoulish fashion: suspended from a beam by a rope hung around his neck, he swings in mid-air. In response to such ghastly descriptions, critics have studied how Capote combines “gothic terror [with