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Stefan Groth

Language and its relation to culture has been a topic of research in German Volkskunde [folklore studies] from the beginning of the discipline. While dialectological studies, linguistic specificities of local cultures and language in everyday life have been integral parts of Volkskunde for much of the first part of the twentieth century, the discipline saw a shift away from its philological elements towards a social science orientation in post-Second World War developments. During the last decades, the analysis of linguistic dimensions of everyday culture has been on the margin of scholarly activities in Volkskunde. Starting with a historic perspective on the role of language in the beginnings of the discipline, this article discusses the development and decrease of the study of linguistic aspects. It analyses the role of language in contemporary German Volkskunde both in theory and methodology, and offers perspectives on how the discipline could benefit from a renewed focus on linguistic dimensions of everyday culture.

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Raphaël Baroni

Unnaturalness and Transmediality as New Challenges for Narrative Theory Contemporary narratology has evolved considerably since its formalist heyday. 1 Among the numerous new trends that we have witnessed in the past decades, Jan Christoph Meister

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Thierry Groensteen

This article provides the base for a narratology that is specific to comics. It takes into account the irrefutable presence of an agent responsible for graphic enunciation, the monstrator, and on the basis of a case study (Franquin, Jidéhem and Greg's album, The Shadow of Z) it deducts that the instance of the recitant is responsible for verbal enunciation. The necessity to distinguish these two instances from that of the fundamental narrator is collaborated by the different positions that can be adapted with respect to storytelling.

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Lady into Fox, Fox into Lady

Rewriting Lesbian Stereotypes in Summer Will Show

Gay Wachman

Intertextuality is basic to Sylvia Townsend Warner’s narratives: she is a formidably learned, effortlessly allusive writer. From her slyly absurd references to Wordsworth in the lush tropical setting of Mr. Fortune’s Maggot (1927) through her retelling of Apuleius’s Cupid and Psyche to produce an allegory of class oppression in her first historical novel, The True Heart (1929), to the densely woven intertextuality of Summer Will Show (1936), she uses allusion both to ground her apparently implausible narratives within literary history and to question and parody the politics, ‘history’, and narratology of her predecessors. It is appropriate that in this novel, where the lesbian romance in Paris is precisely coterminous with the 1848 revolution, many of the allusions are to nineteenth-century French literary history. Warner’s ‘unwriting’ of Flaubert’s L’Éducation Sentimentale has received a great deal of attention since it was first noted by Terry Castle in her 1990 theorisation of the lesbian triangular plot. Later writers, in contrast, have emphasised the allusion’s Marxist significance. Quite another fictional genealogy seems more to the point, however, when we consider Warner’s characterisation of Minna Lemuel, the revolutionary Jewish story-teller: the representation, usually by women writers, of the powerful, sexually active, sometimes evil and sometimes doomed femme artiste, as in Madame de Stael’s Corinne, Charlotte Brontë’s Villette, George Sand’s Consuelo, and Colette’s La Seconde. It is now abundantly clear that the intertextuality of Summer Will Show demonstrates that the novel is narratologically, politically, and sexually revolutionary.

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Christine Winberg

Narratology is the study of the ways in which narrative organises perception and experience. Narratologists understand narrative as a ‘meta-code, a human universal’ (White 1987), which is instrumental in enabling the re-organisation of time, space, character and event in the construction of meaning in texts. Narratologists draw on different epistemological traditions, and develop different approaches and practices. These approaches can be roughly categorised as belonging to textual, inter-textual, and extra-textual traditions. The textual approach is exemplified by the work of Vladimir Propp (1928/1968), Claude Levi-Strauss (1958/1963), Roland Barthes (1966/1977), Algirdas Greimas (1966/1983), Paul Ricoeur (1985), and Tzvetan Todorov (1990). Narratologists in this structuralist tradition categorize and taxonomize narrative form. Propp identified 31 ‘narratemes’ (the smallest narrative units, equivalent to morphemes at the sentence level), which occur in all narratives in unvarying sequence; Greimas developed a typology of narrative ‘actants’; and Ricoeur investigated connections between time and narrative to typify ‘configurational activities’ in narrative plots and sequences. These, and other, textual approaches to narrative, show how texts selectively draw on narrative resources (emplotment, ways of representing character, hermeneutic and proairetic codes) in the construction of narrative meaning.

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Malcolm Turvey

history of the moving image has its origins in this book, and it is, to use a much overused word, seminal. Bordwell does three things in Narration in the Fiction Film that no film scholar had done before him. He develops the fledgling narratology of

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David Miranda-Barreiro, Michelle Herte, Joe Sutliff Sanders, and Mark McKinney

to keep the dialogue open and understand the nature of comics today. David Miranda-Barreiro Bangor University Jan-Noël Thon , Transmedial Narratology and Contemporary Media Culture , Frontiers of Narrative (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2016

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Jan Ifversen

discussed the intriguing problem of combining a structuralist and a narrative approach to history while acknowledging the “natural chronology” Of experienced time. 4 He accepted the presupposition from narratology that the event is the key to any story, but

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The Editors

simultaneously, as well as the possibility of including multilinear paths through the page, within the framework of ‘unnatural narratology’. He argues that while the variable sjuzhet , or nonlinear storytelling process, tends to be confined in literature to

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Land Reclamations

Boundary Work as Production of Disciplinary Uniqueness

Klaus Schriewer

that one of its main fields is narratology and oral communication. For instance, research presented by scholars like Albrecht Lehmann (2007) regarding the analysis of consciousness shows the high level of reflection that has been achieved in this