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Educating for Nationhood

A Semiotic Reading of the Memorial Hall for Victims of the Nanjing Massacre by Japanese Invaders

Patrizia Violi

This article analyzes the Memorial Hall for Victims of the Nanjing Massacre by Japanese Invaders, opened in its present form in 2007 to commemorate the massacre perpetrated by the Japanese in 1937, when in the course of six weeks a significant number of harmless civilians were brutally slaughtered. The memorial is a highly complex semiotic object: it includes a large museum but is also, and perhaps above all, a huge thematic park that occupies an extremely large surface area of seventy-four thousand square meters. Through a close reading of the site, this article seeks to show how the Nanjing Memorial, more than serving the function of conservation and transmission of a tragic, traumatic memory, is mostly a monument to Chinese nationhood, an important step in the construction of a new national identity.

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Satoshi Abe

In addressing mounting environmental problems in recent years, many Iranian environmentalists have increasingly adapted discourses and implemented programs that are modeled on scientific ecology. Does this mean the verbatim transfer of Western scientific modernity in Iran? My analyses suggest otherwise. This article explores the unique ways in which a burgeoning environmental awareness unfolds in Iranian contexts by investigating how conceptions of "nature" shape the environmentalists' discourses and practices. It appears that an ecological scientific conception of nature is becoming an important frame of reference among such environmentalists. However, another conception of nature-one framed in relation to Iranian nationhood-makes a key contribution to environmentalism in Iran. Drawing on fieldwork conducted in 2009-2011 in Tehran, this study demonstrates how "Iranian nature" is delineated and practiced through the environmentalists' (re)engagements with certain objects-maps, posters, and photographs-in relation to which local ways of conceptualizing nature are elaborated.

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The state, race, and immigrant adaptation

A comparative analysis of the Korean diaspora in Japan and the United States

Kazuko Suzuki

English abstract: What accounts for varying forms of adaptation of immigrants to host countries? Despite their common ethnic origin, Korean immigrants demonstrate very different adaptation patterns in Japan and the United States. By elucidating the importance of different national peculiarities in racial ideology, this article argues that Korean immigrants are racialized differently given different circumstances and structural conditions in these two countries. Employing a cross-national comparison focusing on a single ethnic group, this study shows that cultural and racial similarities between immigrants and the mainstream of the host society do not guarantee smooth assimilation. This article concludes that in the long run, differences in modes of incorporation are more relevant to immigrant adaptation than visible racial or cultural differences between the immigrants and the mainstream of the host society.

Spanish abstract: ¿Cómo se explican las diversas formas de adaptación de inmigrantes en los países receptores? A pesar de su origen étnico común, los inmigrantes coreanos han mostrado patrones de adaptación muy diferentes en Japón y los Estados Unidos. Al mostrar la importancia de las diferentes peculiaridades nacionales en la ideología racial, este artículo argumenta que los inmigrantes coreanos son racializados diferencialmente de acuerdo a las distintas circunstancias y las condiciones estructurales en estos dos países. A través de una comparación transnacional centrada en un solo grupo étnico, este estudio muestra que las similitudes raciales y culturales entre los inmigrantes y la mayoría de la sociedad de acogida, no garantizan una fácil asimilación. En este artículo se concluye que, en el largo plazo, las diferencias en los modos de incorporación son más relevantes para la adaptación de los inmigrantes que las visibles diferencias raciales / culturales entre los inmigrantes y la generalidad de la sociedad receptora.

French abstract: Comment expliquer les formes variables de l'adaptation des immigrants dans le pays hôte ? En dépit de leur origine ethnique commune, les immigrants coréens ont montré des modes d'adaptation très différents au Japon et aux Etats-Unis. En montrant l'importance de certaines particularités nationales pour l'idéologie raciale, cet article soutient que ces immigrants coréens sont racialement différenciés en fonction des situations et des conditions structurelles différentes dans ces deux pays. Par le biais d'une comparaison transnationale portant sur un seul groupe ethnique, ce e étude montre que les similarités culturelles et raciales entre les immigrants et la société-hôte traditionnelle ne sont pas les garantes d'une assimilation aisée. Cet article conclut que, sur le long-terme, les modes d'incorporation sont plus importants pour l'adaptation des immigrants que les différences raciales/culturelles visibles entre les immigrants et la société traditionnelle de l'Etat-hôte.

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Gargi Gangopadhyay

Abstract

This article examines perceptions of colonial modernity as experienced by middle-class Bengali children in Calcutta at the turn of the twentieth century. This was the time in which the foundations of modern Calcutta and modern Bengali childhood were laid, and in which urban cultures of education and entertainment gradually replaced precolonial patterns of childhood. This article examines these transformations and assesses their role in the formation of new social norms that were to define middle-class Bengali childhood until the end of the twentieth century.

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The New Nationalism?

Antecedents of the Alternative for Germany's Islamfeindlichkeit

J Sterphone

, albeit with some anti-immigrant stances. Following infighting and a change in leadership in 2015, the party incorporated more anti-Muslim discourses and policies into its repertoire. 3 These discursive resources draw on conceptions of German nationhood

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Negotiating the Nation in History

The Swedish State Approval Scheme for Textbooks and Teaching Aids from 1945 to 1983

Henrik Åström Elmersjö

idea of nationhood as the direct aim of history education had disappeared from the syllabus for history and civics. In the lower secondary school ( realskola ) the clear notion of a collective remained, and the only logical inference was that it was the

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Natalie Clark

processes grounded in Indigenous epistemologies. This article challenges conventional intersectionality and trauma scholarship by foregrounding Indigenous girls’ resistance, Indigenous sovereignty/nationhood, and anti-colonialism. At the same time

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Lest We Forget (Matter)

Posthumanism, Memory, and Exclusion

Matthew Howard

on the fact that Gallipoli was a matter of great national pride. The notion that Anzac Day should be celebrated in a much more fitting fashion and observed as “the day on which [they] first became fully conscious of their nationhood” ( Anon 1940a: 4

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Leyla Neyzi, Nida Alahmad, Nina Gren, Martha Lagace, Chelsey Ancliffe, and Susanne Bregnbæk

book offers much food for thought also to future humanitarian actors. Nina Gren Lund University Peaceful Selves: Personhood, Nationhood, and the Post-Conflict Moment in Rwanda , By Laura Eramian. New York: Berghahn Books, 2019. 202 pp. 3

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Marc Morjé Howard

Carl F. Lankowski, ed., Breakdown, Breakup, Breakthrough: Germany’s Difficult Passage to Modernity (New York: Berghahn Books, 1999)

John Brady, Beverly Crawford, and Sarah Elise Wiliarty, eds., The Postwar Transformation of Germany: Democracy, Prosperity, and Nationhood (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1999)

Christopher S. Allen, ed., Transformation of the German Political Party System: Institutional Crisis or Democratic Renewal? (New York: Berghahn Books, 1999)