the last few hundred years, human-nature systems are in danger of collapse. Surface and sub-soil water resources are drastically overtaxed and the ecosystems that they support are collapsing. The destruction of habitat is causing a wave of extinctions
Constanza Parra and Casey Walsh
A Review of Organic Certification
Shaila Seshia Galvin
As organic food becomes more widely available, great faith is placed on the seal or logo that certifies organic status. This article treats the mark of certification as a starting rather than an end point, critically reviewing literature from diverse national and regional contexts. Exploring questions concerning the extent to which organic certification assists or undermines the goal of ecological sustainability, abets the advance of large-scale agricultural capital, and supports the livelihood of smallholder farmers, the article considers the theoretical foundations, methodologies and modes of inquiry that have guided studies of organic agriculture and certification. It brings this research into conversation with literatures on audit cultures, quality, and with ongoing nature-culture debates. Through critical review of the literature and the author's extensive fieldwork with organic smallholders in northern India, the article suggests possible directions in which the literature may be expanded and advanced.
Sanne van der Hout and Martin Drenthen
Over the past few decades, biological knowledge has grown rapidly. We have discovered that the mechanisms and processes of nature are much more complex, intricate, and interwoven than we ever imagined. As “we can see, more clearly than ever before
Using Schutz to Conceptualize the Nature Experiences of Secular People
David Thurfjell, Cecilie Rubow, Atko Remmel and Henrik Ohlsson
Denmark, Estonia, and Sweden are, if measured by certain sociological criteria, considered to be three of the world’s most secular countries. Nature—forests, pristine beaches, and the countryside—plays a specific role in the allegedly secular discourse of the mainstream populations of these nations. Not only is it almost without exception deemed as a positive asset worthy of protection, it is also thought of as holding certain existential qualities. Based on ethnographic fieldwork and interviews, this article suggests that Alfred Schutz’s conceptualization of transcendence—further developed by Thomas Luckmann—can be used to describe the existential experiences in nature of contemporary secular people. The article results in a suggestion for an operational definition of transcendence.
Nathalie Blanc and Agnès Sander
Speculative fiction as a literary genre is a test of the renewed relation to nature presented as possible reality. The vision of nature presented by some science fiction and fantasy authors varies along these lines. The hypothesis underlying the present article is that these "speculative fiction–proposed natures" force us to rethink the rapport between time and space. Therefore, we need to examine to what extent science fiction and fantasy, focused on the preparation of an uncertain future, play on the links between time and nature and reconfigure both the agencies and the aesthetic situations that serve as experiments.
conceptions of pristine nature and created new ways of imagining the intersection of ecology and society in the city. The human-animal relations that animate this article played out in the fifth-largest city in the United States; more specifically, right in
between the dominant aesthetics of nature that drive this project and the material realities of Santa Barbara’s climate and physical geography by answering the question of how Santa Barbarans’ sense of place is impacted by citywide cultural preferences for
There has recently been growing interest in the role of metaphors in environmentalism and nature conservation. Metaphors not only structure how we perceive and think but also how we should act. The metaphor of nature as a book provokes a different attitude and kind of nature management than the metaphor of nature as a machine, an organism, or a network. This article explores four clusters of metaphors that are frequently used in framing ecological restoration: metaphors from the domains of engineering and cybernetics; art and aesthetics; medicine and health care; and geography. The article argues that these metaphors, like all metaphors, are restricted in range and relevance, and that we should adopt a multiple vision on metaphor. The adoption and development of such a multiple vision will facilitate communication and cooperation across the boundaries that separate different kinds of nature management and groups of experts and other stakeholders.
Constanza Parra and Frank Moulaert
Introduction This article contributes to restoring the unity between “nature” and “culture” in the study of the governance of socio-ecological systems (SES) in academic disciplines such as ecology, biology, spatial planning and geography, as well as
Björn E. Berglund
Urban Emanuelsson. The Rural Landscapes of Europe: How Man has Shaped European Nature. Stockholm, Sweden: The Swedish Research Council Formas, 2009, www.formas.se.