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Where Only Wind Was Once Sown

The Tradition of Republicanism and the Agrarian Question in Brazil

Heloisa Maria Murgel Starling

The article traces the reception of different strands of Republicanism in Brazil. French republicanism inspired authors such as Euclides da Cunha in his realization that a true Brazilian republic would only be achieved with the inclusion of its vast interior and its destitute population. But the reception of republicanism in Brazil also drew from Anglo-Saxon sources, which resulted also in an emphasis on the political nature of the community. American republicanism, with its conception of territorial expansion, land possession, and active economic participation added a further dimension to Brazilian republicanism. In particular, Teofilo Otoni's attempt to create a political community in the Mucury Valley was modeled after the ideals of American republicanism. Even if the Brazilian republicanism that emerged from the reception of these strands failed to impose its agenda over the political mainstream, it provided a unifying ideology for the opposition throughout the Second Empire and the First Republic, and still constitutes a source of inspiration for political reform and criticism.

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Political Regeneration

José Bonifácio and Temporal Experiences in the Luso-American World in the Early Nineteenth Century

Maria Elisa Noronha De Sá and Marcelo Gantus Jasmin

ABSTRACT

The article analyzes the concept of political regeneration as related to temporal experiences in the processes of political emancipation and the forming of the Brazilian nation. The authors analyze selected texts written by José Bonifácio de Andrada e Silva, a leading politician and intellectual involved in these processes. Such texts supply indications and symptoms that help us to understand how two different historical experiences, designated respectively by this author as the “political regeneration of the Portuguese Empire” and the “political regeneration of the Brazilian nation,” became possible. The uses of the concept of political regeneration in Bonifácio’s discourses may be grasped as symptomatic of the very complex temporal experiences in the context of the Portuguese language during the first decades of the nineteenth century in Brazil.