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Elizabeth C. Macknight

Catholic women’s organizations that counted hundreds of thousands of members by 1914. 4 This article examines the Catholic nobility’s efforts to protect religious-based education within écoles libres during the second half of the nineteenth century. The

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“And much more I am soryat for my good knyghts”

Fainting, Homosociality, and Elite Male Culture in Middle English Romance

Rachel E. Moss

and to promote homosocial bonding. Mador does not faint in spite of his knightly qualities of hardiness, strength, and prowess: he faints because of them, and his swooning is literary shorthand for the nobility this fast-paced poem does not have the

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Marvin J. Heller

The phenomenon of the Court Jew does not cease to fascinate us. Our attention is at first drawn by the contrast of Jews as advisers and confidantes to princes and monarchs, not infrequently in a kingdom or duchy which otherwise forbade residence to Jews, or, if it did allow it, segregated them in ghettos with the concomitant disabilities that results from such a status. The image of these court factors (Hoffaktor, Hofjude) is further enhanced by their use of the trappings of the eighteenth century nobility, while, more often than not, they not only adhered to the faith of their fathers, but actively worked for and interceded on behalf of their co-religionists.

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Passions and Purposes

Acting Faith and Nostalgia in New Caledonia

Matt K. Matsuda

As developed since the seventeenth century, the concept and experience of nostalgia has been linked to individuals or groups displaced from, and longing for, a distant site they consider to be “home.” Colonial historians have also noted that indigenous peoples, such as Australian Aborigines or the Kanak in New Caledonia, may suffer from “solastalgia,” that is, homesickness while “still at home” because they have been subjects with restricted rights on what was once their own territory. The thoughts and writings of Kanak seminarian and anticolonial activist Jean-Marie Tjibaou are analyzed to demonstrate the ways that Kanak communities have shaped locally rooted identities through traditions of genealogy to assert continuities in their own history. Special focus is given here to Tjibaou's seminary training and his appropriation of Biblical stories and teachings to make points about suffering, charity, nobility, and challenges to authority, both in staged passion plays and in Kanak versions of the Christian Word.

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Cleaning House

the Courtly and the Popular in The Merry Wives of Windsor

Graham Holderness

This paper explores the controversy as to whether The Merry Wives of Windsor is a celebration of royal and aristocratic power and of an imagined national community, or a suburban comedy whose viewpoint is that of the contemporary English middle-class. Drawing on recent work on female authority in household and community, it is suggested that Shakespeare's Windsor is not only discontinuous with the culture of nobility, but is presented as a parallel world or alternative universe where things are done quite differently. The play thus engages in a critique of the aristocratic values embodied in the Order of the Garter, and offers an alternative source of power in the domestic lives of ordinary women.

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Rabbi Leo Baeck

A Personal Appraisal and Appreciation

David Ellenson

In This People Israel, Leo Baeck observed that Jewish vision 'looks backward and forward simultaneously', that 'nothing exists solely for itself. Everything has its predecessor and its successor, its ancestry and its direction.' Judaism 'only knows relationship and totality'. Rabbi Baeck observed that while the Greeks viewed the past as 'historia, "investigation"', Judaism speaks of 'toldot, "generations"'. There is a sense of connection that binds the Jew to the past, even as it bids us as Jews to consider the present and look to the future. As we seek to hear the commandment of the living God in our own generation, we acknowledge our debt to the past as we simultaneously affirm our responsibility to ourselves and to generations yet unborn as we seek to leave our posterity - our toldot - a worthy legacy. Revelation is captured and God experienced in the ongoing moments of life and the deeds that the individual and the community perform. I am grateful to Rabbi Baeck for the model of his life and the insights and nobility of his teachings. They inspire and direct me – however imperfectly I act – as I struggle with the challenges of life.

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Demotion as Value

Rank Infraction among the Ngadha in Flores, Indonesia

Olaf H. Smedal

draw on personal observations of two such returns and accompanying rituals and show how attitudes among the nobility toward traditional values are now changing. Today’s grandparental generation adheres to the ideology of the past and judges these cross

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From “De Facto King” to Peasants’ Communes

A Struggle for Representation in the Discourse of the Polish Great Emigration, 1832–1846/48

Piotr Kuligowski

political entity? Whose will should be represented in the political field, a king's, the nobility, the people or nation in general? The specificity of the Polish reflections on this concept resulted not only from the condition of being a nation without a

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Gabriela Kiliánová

about the beginnings of blueprint production in the Netherlands, Germany and other European countries. Thanks to the development of dyers guilds, printed fabrics, which were previously a precious commodity from the Orient for nobility and wealthy people

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Representative Government in the Dutch Provinces

The Controversy over the Stadtholderate (1705–1707) and Simon van Slingelandt

Bert Drejer

freedom of the town councils or vroedschappen , the nobles, and the authority of a stadtholder. The outcome of this vision of Dutch constitutional history was the claim that the towns, nobility, and stadtholder together “possess sovereignty.” This is how