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Inaudito exemplo

The Abduction of Romsey’s Abbess

Linda D. Brown

Abstract

The abduction in 1160 of Romsey’s abbess Marie, daughter of King Stephen and Queen Matilda of England, attracted considerable attention in England and Northern Europe. Medieval chroniclers theorized about those who had arranged the raptus, empha-sizing that they had targeted a holy bride of Christ. At the scandal’s crux was the altered status of the abbess who had unexpectedly become sole heir to her family’s lands, wealth, and titles. This transformation occurred for Marie when the last of her family died in the waning months of 1159. With astonishing speed, Marie transitioned from her role as a high-status abbess to one of heiress-countess. This article examines the evidence concerning the abduction’s backstory, the resulting marriage, and the aftermath of Marie’s nine years as a married countess. It presents Marie in light of her ability to adapt to and exploit the changing political, social, and cultural landscapes that she inhabited.

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Introduction

Literacies in Early Modern England

Eve Rachele Sanders and Margaret W. Ferguson

Literacy, in the sixteenth century, was construed as multiple, variable, subject to redefinition by edict from above and by practices from below. The importance of regulating changes in skills and behaviors, in particular, increased reading of the Bible, was hotly debated as the Reformation got underway. In England, the Tudor state intervened erratically, first encouraging the reading of the English Bible for all, then forbidding its reading to all but a privileged few. In 1538, every parish church was required by a royal injunction to purchase an English Bible and place it in the choir. The Great Bible, published in 1540 with a new preface by the Archbishop of Canterbury, stressed the ideal of an England peopled by ‘all manner’ of readers of Scripture in the vernacular: ‘Here may all manner of persons, men, women, young, old, learned, unlearned, rich, poor, priests, laymen, lords, ladies, officers, tenants, and mean men, virgins, wives, widows, lawyers, merchants, artificers, husbandmen, and all manner of persons, of what estate or condition soever they be, may in this book learn all things’. Only three years later, however, in 1543, the selfvauntingly named Act for the Advancement of True Religion and for the Abolishment of the Contrary attempted to undo that opening of the floodgates by lowering them again to allow for only a trickle of elite readers to have access to Scripture. Reading the Bible in English was prohibited outright for women, artificers, journeymen, serving-men of the rank of yeoman and under, husbandmen and laborers; noblewomen and gentlewomen could read the Bible silently; only noblemen, gentlemen, and merchants were permitted to read it aloud to others.

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Jane F. Hacking, Jeffrey S. Hardy, and Matthew P. Romaniello

Empire. The first, by Gwyn Bourlakov, investigates the use of Siberian convents as places of exile and incarceration in the mid-to-late eighteenth century. Designated as a place to hold elite noblewomen, Dalmatov Vvedenskii Convent in Western Siberia

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Katherine Weikert and Elena Woodacre

Engendering Archaeology: Women and Prehistory , ed. J. Gero and M. Conkley (Oxford: Blackwell, 1991), 46. 7 Susan M. Johns, Noblewomen, Aristocracy and Power in the Twelfth Century Anglo-Norman Realm , Gender in History (Manchester: Manchester University

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Mirrors for Margraves

Peter Damian’s Models for Male and Female Rulers

Alison Creber

Judith, a chaste widow, who was frequently presented as a figure for medieval queens and noblewomen to follow. 64 In particular Damian refers to Judith and the priest Ozias (Judith 8:12–13) to emphasize that there were times when a woman could

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Elizabeth C. Macknight

book, this article highlights a widening empirical base of archival material dispersed in provincial depots. 12 Catholic noblewomen and noblemen founded écoles libres because of their families’ historic property-based and charitable ties to rural

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Gender and Empire

The Imprisonment of Women in Eighteenth-Century Siberia

Gwyn Bourlakov

looked to elite or noblewomen to conform to prescribed models of European femininity, which extolled moral rectitude and sexual modesty, and explained women's dependence on men due to their ‘natural’ physical weakness, and mental fragility. 13 However

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Whitney Walton

compared to the privileges conferred by custom.” 53 Barine quoted Cardinal Mazarin on the capacity for rule of three noblewomen in the seventeenth century: “We have three [women] … who would be capable of governing or overthrowing three great kingdoms: the

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A Fiction of the French Nation

The Émigré Novel, Nostalgia, and National Identity, 1797–1815

Mary Ashburn Miller

Republic of Letters: 1789–1815” (PhD diss., University of Pennsylvania, 2009); Laure Philip, “The Memoirs and Novels of French Noblewomen Emigrées of the Revolution, 1789–1830” (PhD diss., University of Warwick, 2015); Daniel Hall, “Fictionalizing History

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Socialisms in the Tsarist Borderlands

Poland and Finland in a Contrastive Comparison, 1830—1907

Wiktor Marzec and Risto Turunen

rapidly after the revolution. The aforementioned shoemaker Eetu Salin even complained at the end of 1905 that, while a few years earlier nobody had the courage to shout “long live socialism,” in the aftermath of the General Strike even noblewomen wanted to