Pleistocene rewilding ( Donlan et al. 2006 ) and assisted colonization ( McLachlan et al. 2007 ). But an emerging nexus for this shift is the concept of novel ecosystems (CNE, see Hobbs et al. 2006 , 2009 , 2013a ), a novel ecosystem (NE) being defined as
Brendon M. H. Larson
Planetary changes associated with the Anthropocene challenge longestablished ideas and approaches within biodiversity conservation, such as wilderness, wildness, native and exotic species, species and ecosystem diversity, and what counts as success in biodiversity conservation. This article reviews and analyzes how the Anthropocene is being used within the literature on biodiversity conservation. It finds that the idea of a new epoch has been used to frame a broad range of new approaches and concepts to understanding and stemming the loss of biodiversity. These new ideas are diverse and sometimes contradictory, embracing a range of ethical values and positions. Yet the term Anthropocene is not widely used within the biodiversity conservation literature. Despite the cross-disciplinary nature of the Anthropocene, interdisciplinary research on these new concepts and approach is rare, and the insights of the humanities are almost entirely absent. Debates about conservation in the Anthropocene are a continuation of long-running controversies within conservation, such as how it should relate to human development, and over the concept of wilderness. Overall, this review demonstrates that the literature on biodiversity conservation in the Anthropocene is not well established, is both diverse and new, while echoing longstanding debates in conservation, and it indicates the direction such literature might take in future.
Over the past decade a shift can be noticed from ecological restoration to ecological design, where ecological design stands for a technocratic approach that courts hubris and mastery rather than humility and self-restraint. Following Eric Higgs, this shift can be seen as a “hyperactive and heedless response“ to global environmental change, especially climate change. The new technocratic approach may be best characterized as enlightened (or prudential) anthropocentrism, where nature is only allowed that degree of agency which is required to deliver the services that are essential for human well-being. It is not only questionable if we have the scientific and technical abilities to purposeful design ecosystems that will serve our needs, but also if the new approach will be sufficient to protect biodiversity in the long run.
J. Cristobal Pizarro and Brendon M. H. Larson
( 3 ): 113 – 123 , doi:10.1016/j.landurbplan.2008.12.003 . Buizer , Marleen , Tim Kurz , and Katinka Ruthrof . 2012 . “ Understanding Restoration Volunteering in a Context of Environmental Change: In Pursuit of Novel Ecosystems or Historical
Hydro-Logical Design for the Ecologically Responsive City
structure that conditions a new ecology (a novel ecosystem). To see the city-as-watershed and to affect this larger-scale urban conversion requires attending to ecologically responsive, multifunctional, and expressive water systems at the building and
A Case Study from the Cook County Forest Preserves
Nicole M. Evans and William P. Stewart
. “ A Critique of the ‘Novel Ecosystem’ Concept ”. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 29 ( 10 ): 548 – 553 . doi:10.1016/j.tree.2014.07.006 . Nash , Roderick . 1967 . Wilderness and the American Mind . New Haven, CT : Yale University Press . North