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From Social to Biological Parasites and Back

The Conceptual Career of a Metaphor

Andreas Musolff

The categorization of individuals or groups as social parasites has often been treated as an example of semantic transfer from the biological to the social domain. Historically, however, the scientific uses of the term parasite cannot be deemed to be primary, as their emergence in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries was preceded by a much older tradition of religious and social terminology. Its social use in modern times, on the other hand, builds on a secondary metaphorization from the scientific source concept. This article charts the history of the term parasite from its etymological origins to the present day, distinguishes its metaphorical and non-metaphorical uses, and discusses the implications of these findings regarding the cognitive understanding of the relationship between (perceived) literal and metaphorical meanings. In conclusion, it is argued that metaphorization needs to be analyzed not only in terms of its conceptual structure but also in its role in discourse history.

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‘Moving back and forth of the I’

Parasite and Para-site in Beckett's The Unnamable

Jagannath Basu and Jayjit Sarkar

The theory of being, ontology, brings us to atoms. The theory of relations brings us to parasite. —Michel Serres, The Parasite OPENER: I open. VOICE: – falls … again … on purpose or not … can't see … he's down […] in the sand … knee

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Trouble in Para-sites

Deference and Influence in the Ethnography of Epistemic Elites

Paul Robert Gilbert

Through his enduring efforts to interrogate the regulative ideals of fieldwork, George Marcus has empowered doctoral students in anthropology to rethink their ethnographic encounters in terms that reflect novel objects and contexts of inquiry. Marcus' work has culminated in a charter for ethnographic research among 'epistemic communities' that requires 'deferral' to these elite modes of knowing. For adherents to this programme of methodological reform, the deliberately staged 'para-site' – an opportunity for ethnographers and their 'epistemic partners' to reflect upon a shared intellectual purpose – is the signature fieldwork encounter. This article draws on doctoral research carried out among the overlapping epistemic communities that comprise London's market for mining finance, and reviews an attempt to carve out a para-site of my own. Troubled by this experience, and by the ascendant style of deferent anthropology, I think through possibilities for more critical ethnographic research among epistemic elites.

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Parasites from all Civilizations

The Croix de Feu/Parti Social Français Confronts French Jewry, 1931-1939

Samuel Kalman

Refuting claims made by several historians that the Croix de Feu/Parti social français were non-exclusionary, this article demonstrates the prevalence of anti-Semitism and xenophobia throughout the league's metropolitan and Algerian sections. CDF/PSF leadership and rank-and-file alike prioritized the notion of the enemy, and their plans for les exclus augured similar developments under the Vichy regime. Although less rabidly xenophobic than his colleagues, whose opinions variously promoted denaturalization and outright elimination, group leader Colonel Françaois de la Rocque was nonetheless prone to racist and exclusionary doctrine, arguing that foreign Jews and immigrants were the enemies of la patrie, and should necessarily be expunged from the new nation. The article describes the wide range of xenophobia present in group actions and discourse, while positioning the CDF/PSF within the broader context of French and Algerian society.

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Organic Vehicles and Passengers

The Tsetse Fly as Transient Analytical Workspace

Clapperton Chakanetsa Mavhunga

plague (rinderpest) of 1896–1897, Southern Rhodesian colonial authorities need not, and did not, have worries about tsetse. In a typical case of “ecological imperialism,” 4 the European settler’s ox-wagons had brought in a devastating parasite against

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‘True love’ as a bureaucratic utopia

The case of bi‐national couples in Belgium

Maïté Maskens

In this contribution I examine the moral roots of the contemporary (in)hospitality of the city of Brussels by exploring one area of observation in particular: the handling of the fight against marriages of convenience for migratory purposes. Based on 2012–2013 ethnographic fieldwork, I reflect on the utopian thinking underlying the work of state agents in charge of implementing this fight. Through the detailed examination of two case studies, we will see how state agents select ‘good’ couples and, in doing so, reproduce social and racial hierarchies by excluding undesirable forms of intimate relationships. The non‐conformity with local moral standards (and particularly the romantic logic), modest ways of self‐presentation or the current ideology of migrants as parasites are at the core of these practices of exclusion.

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Dances with Heads

Parasitic Mimesis and the Government of Savagery in Colonial East Timor

Ricardo Roque

) study on parasitism provides me with the conceptual grounds for analyzing this form of connection. 11 By attending the headhunting ritual, by taking place in the middle of the warriors’ dances, the governor behaved as a parasite, using his dissolution

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Putting Anthropology into Global Health

A Century of Anti–Human African Trypanosomiasis Campaigns in Angola

Jorge Varanda and Josenando Théophile

others. This analysis generates insight into how the politics of power functioned in Angola through health programmes during colonialism and post-independence. HAT is a vector-borne disease. The HAT parasite, trypanosome gambiense , is spread via the

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Spaces for Transdisciplinary Dialogues on the Relationship between Local Communities and Their Environment

The Case of a Rural Community in the Calchaquí Valley (Salta, Argentina)

Marta Crivos, María Rosa Martínez, Laura Teves, and Carolina Remorini

and detection and control of risk factors, mainly individuals’ hygiene and food habits, house construction materials and sanitary conditions, such as access to drinking water and sewage disposal. We took into account the importance of parasite

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The Editors

show how Schrauwen’s absurdist depiction of his hapless grandfather’s misadventures has resonance as a metaphor for the Belgian colonial experience – for example, his irrational fear that parasites may invade his body, and his consequent attempt to