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Passions and Purposes

Acting Faith and Nostalgia in New Caledonia

Matt K. Matsuda

As developed since the seventeenth century, the concept and experience of nostalgia has been linked to individuals or groups displaced from, and longing for, a distant site they consider to be “home.” Colonial historians have also noted that indigenous peoples, such as Australian Aborigines or the Kanak in New Caledonia, may suffer from “solastalgia,” that is, homesickness while “still at home” because they have been subjects with restricted rights on what was once their own territory. The thoughts and writings of Kanak seminarian and anticolonial activist Jean-Marie Tjibaou are analyzed to demonstrate the ways that Kanak communities have shaped locally rooted identities through traditions of genealogy to assert continuities in their own history. Special focus is given here to Tjibaou's seminary training and his appropriation of Biblical stories and teachings to make points about suffering, charity, nobility, and challenges to authority, both in staged passion plays and in Kanak versions of the Christian Word.

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Ambivalent Anticipations

On Soldierly Becomings in the Desert of the Real

Thomas Randrup Pedersen

What if war is not hell? What if war is not entertainment? What if war is, instead, the stuff dreams are made of? What is one then to anticipate of one’s tour of duty in a war zone? In this article, I interrogate anticipations in relation to soldierly becomings through deployment to Afghanistan. Based on ethnographic fieldwork with Danish combat troops, I explore the uneasy coexistence of two anticipatory plotlines: ‘the passion’ and ‘the desert’. The former depicts the tour of duty as a heroic adventure driven by desire for real combat, while the latter casts deployment as an anti-heroic misadventure imposed by the dull reality in theatre. I argue that anticipation can harbour ambivalent, even antagonistic, yet simultaneous expectations of what might come. I show that anticipation is further blurred, as our anticipatory horizons are tied not only to our unsettled plotlines of becoming but also to our being’s existential imperative.

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Christina Oesterheld

This article illustrates the impact of generic differences and changes in the social and political context on the use of emotion concepts such as love and passion in selected Urdu novels from 1869 until 1945. While Nazir Ahmad (1830/31–1912) and Rashid-ul Khairi (1868–1936) in their domestic novels tend to stress the control of passions, particularly in familial relationships, Abdul Halim Sharar (1860–1926) in his Islamic novels/historical romances allows for romantic attraction and propagates religious fervor, bringing him closer to the emotion vocabulary used in contemporary Urdu journalism. This format was later expanded by Nasim Hijazi (1914–1996), who sought to strengthen the enthusiasm of fellow Muslims in their fight for Pakistan. In this highly popular genre strong feelings and passions serve to arouse intense feeling for the Muslim community.

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Neslihan Ekmekçioğlu

Aemilia Bassano Lanier was partially of Jewish origin and came from a Venetian family of court musicians. She was brought up in the court and was educated by Countess Susan Bertie and the Duchess of Suffolk. Her work entitled Salve Deus Rex Judaeorum is a long narrative poem articulating a woman-centred account of the Bible. As a woman of partial Jewish descent, Aemilia, who has ‘a voice of her own’, deals with the maltreatment of women and compares them to Christ in their silent suffering. At her time, women were often expected to be silent within society, creating an absence rooted in their lack of voice. Both Christ and women sacrifice themselves for the betterment of mankind. This article will deal with Aemilia Lanier’s new perspective upon biblical women and the Passion of Christ as reflected in Salve Deus Rex Judaeorum.

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Cruci erunt eum inter duos latrones

Passion et mort de Louis XVI

Annie Duprat

Cet article se propose de faire un retour sur l'hypothèse des sept morts de Louis XVI formulée par Claude Langlois en 1993. Examinant la polémique menée, par les textes et les images, par les royalistes eux-mêmes, il démontre la force des références anglaises, d'une part, catholiques, d'autre part, dans l'inspiration de leurs auteurs. Le récit dramatisé des faits qui se sont déroulés à Versailles les 5 et 6 octobre 1789 contribue à nourrir l'imaginaire de la violence. Enfin, l'analyse fine de la caricature Grand combat à mort (1792) permet de saisir le rôle du bestiaire dans une caricature politique. De ce livre ressort une nouvelle image de Louis XVI: il est devenu un Christ des temps modernes, souffrant une Passion pour le salut de la France.

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The Temperate Passion of Democratic Reason

The New Zealand Firefighters' Struggle against Restructuring, Downsizing, and Privatizing

Eleanor Rimoldi

Loader concludes his analysis of the trend in Britain and elsewhere toward private security systems by suggesting that “the value of other more deliberative ways of addressing the crime question and structuring the relationship between the police and the ‘publics’ they serve; ways that seek to subject ‘consumer’ demands for particular kinds of policing and security to the test of public discourse oriented to the common good, and so temper with democratic reason the passions that consumer culture threatens to unleash” (1999: 389). The privatization of public services and the undermining of professionalism have taken hold in many countries on the advice of international monetary agencies. In New Zealand, a provincial reading of new right philosophy within the close-knit circle of the New Zealand Business Roundtable generated a power lobby group that served as a conduit for free market libertarian ideas. This article traces the response to these trends as a measure of the strength of civil society and public life in Auckland City, with a specific focus on the resistance by the New Zealand firefighters to restructuring and downsizing the fire service.

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Helen Moore

Rudel’s twelfth-century song, ‘Lanquan li jorn son lonc en may’, embodies the pain and longing of amor de lonh, or love from afar. The convention of amor de lonh, which originated in Provençal lyric poetry, stimulates the lover towards agonised introspection at the same time as impelling his thoughts outward, towards the distant object of his desire. This motif of the distant beloved means that Rudel’s lyrics express love as a desire for travel: when the defining – indeed, only – feature of the beloved is her distance, desire and the impulse to travel become compacted together. In the thirteenth-century Life of Rudel (described by one editor as ‘a narrative transformation and concretization of the dreams’ of this song [Rudel 1978: 54]) the poet falls in love with the countess of Tripoli after hearing pilgrims speak of her: in order to see her he takes up the cross of pilgrimage and sets sail (‘se croset et mes se en mar’, [ibid.: 58]). In this fictionalised biographical account, love is framed by two acts of pilgrimage, one a religious pilgrimage, which incidentally carries the stories of the countess to Rudel, and the other an amorous pilgrimage which cloaks itself as a religious journey.

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Revital Amiran-Sappir

This article deals with the relation of Micha Yosef Ben Gurion (Berdichevski)—one of the central formulators of the Zionist idea and of modern Hebrew literature—to the Zionist political sphere. As a wordly Jewish intellectual, Berdichevski attempted to establish a kind of Zionism that would allow Jewish individuals to engage in it as an act of their desires. In exploring how his carnal inclinations affected his vision of the political, I argue that Berdichevski's perception fails qualitatively by transposing its guiding sensual approach to the formulation of the new Jewish political sphere. As this article will show, Berdichevski's relation to the Jewish political revolution reveals a sometimes limited perception regarding the possibilities of freedom inherent in political activity and often contradicts his own aspiration to nurture the liberty of Jewish individuals.

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George E. Marcus

For me, since the 1980s, the distinctive event in the recent history of social and cultural anthropology in the United States has been a profound cutting of the discipline (or rather of this influential component of the four-field disciplinary organisation of general anthropology) from moorings that defined it through much of the twentieth century. Certainly the discipline is still wedded functionally to certain aspects of the institutional model which has shaped the identity of social and cultural anthropologists, as pioneered through the works of such figures as Bronislaw Malinowski in England and Franz Boas in the United States. Most anthropologists still begin their careers with a geographical area specialisation outside the U.S. However, few receive the intensive areas studies education that was available and encouraged in the U.S. during the 1950s through to the 1970s when, in the atmosphere of the Cold War and development studies, there was a huge investment in such interdisciplinary programmes that has since waned.

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Emotions in Motion

The Passions of Tourism, Travel and Movement (2009)

Michael A. Di Giovine and David Picard

Leeds Metropolitan University, 4–7 July, 2009