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An Unpublished Manuscript by Durkheim

‘On the General Physics of Law and Morality, 4th Year of the Course, 1st Lecture, December 2, 1899, Course Outline: On Penal Sanctions’

Émile Durkheim, edited and translated by François Pizarro Noël, and Ronjon Paul Datta

identified. Now, we have seen that they fall into two major kinds: negative sanctions and positive sanctions. The first are tied to acts that [illegible] 5 violate and negate the rule; therefore, we gave them that name. Such is the case with penalties, moral

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Humanity’s Subtensions

Culture Theory in US Death Penalty Mitigation

Jesse Cheng

Early in my field research, one of the most well-respected attorneys in the United States’ criminal defense bar described to me a moral sentiment that drives sentencing defense practices in murder cases charged with the death penalty. “In order for

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Victimización en México

Un análisis de equilibrio general

Sandra Edith Medellín Mendoza and Joana Cecilia Chapa Cantú

*Full article is in Spanish

English abstract: There exists few studies on Mexico related to research of the factors involved in the decision-making process of individuals when choosing whether to be a law-abiding citizen or a criminal. From the perspective of members of criminal markets—i.e., victims, felons, and the government—this work explains under a general equilibrium model how the delinquency rate for felonies, such as theft, in the various Mexican states function as structural parameters for wages, taxes, police reliability, and legal penalties. The results suggest that, in an environment of low accusation and punishment, the only variable in this model which has a real effect in reducing crime are monetary penalties, due to the fact that the felon must face this kind of penalty once accused, captured, and jailed.

Spanish abstract: Existen pocos estudios para el caso mexicano donde se investiga cuáles son los factores que intervienen en la toma de decisiones de los individuos al elegir entre ser criminal o no. Desde la perspectiva de los integrantes del mercado del crimen, esto es, víctimas, delincuentes y gobierno, este trabajo explica bajo un modelo de equilibrio general, cómo responde la tasa de delincuencia para delitos como el robo de las entidades federativas mexicanas ante cambios en los parámetros estructurales como salarios, impuestos, productividad de la policía y las penas consideradas en el marco legal. Los resultados encontrados sugieren que en un contexto de bajas tasas de denuncia y castigo, la única variable de política que en el marco de este modelo tiene efecto para reducir el crimen son las penas monetarias, ya que estas las enfrenta el criminal una vez que es denunciado, capturado y encarcelado.

French abstract: Rares sont les études au Mexique qui s'interrogent sur les facteurs liés au processus de prise de décision chez les individus concernant leur choix de devenir ou non des criminels. Fondé sur les opinions des agents du crime organisé, dont les victimes, les criminels et le gouvernement, cet article analyse sur la base d'un modèle d'équilibre général, la manière dont le taux de délinquance, à l'instar des détournements des fonds publics dans des régions mexicaines, réagit aux changement des paramètres structurels tels que les salaires, les impôts, l'efficience de la police et la fiabilité des sanctions dans le cadre juridique. Les résultats suggèrent que dans un contexte pareil marqué par un faible taux de plaintes et de sanctions, la seule variable de politiques susceptibles de réduire efficacement la criminalité, sont les sanctions pécuniaires, auxquelles les criminels seraient systématiquement confrontés en cas de dénonciation, d'arrestation ou d'emprisonnement.

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Running Wilde

Landscape, the Body, and the History of the Treadmill

Vybarr Cregan Reid

How have exercise, the body, and modes of imprisonment become so imbricated in modern societies? The treadmill started its life as the harshest form of punishment that could be meted out, short of the death penalty. It remained so for two centuries. Today, we pay membership fees equivalent to a household energy bill for the dubious privilege of being permitted to run on them. The treadmill is a high-functioning symbol of our anthropocene life that chooses to engage with self-created realities that knowingly deny our creaturely existence.

This essay aims to bring a number of genres and disciplines into conversation with one another to effect a mode of reflective but insightful cultural analysis. Through this ecological interdependence of genre, (including history, philosophy, literary analysis, sociology, psychogeography, autobiography, and biography) the essay aims to look at the ways in which our condition in modernity conspires against our psychological, physiological, geographical, and personal freedoms. Using Oscar Wilde's experiences of life on the treadmill, some of Hardy's poetry, Simone Weil, Pater, Foucault, Lacan, Sartre, Althusser, and Lukács, the essay draws attention to the ways that inauthenticity and dehumanisation have become the mainstay of life in the modern gym.

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Malini Sur

prohibition sign next to a traffic police booth, while a bicycle makes a slow entry into a cycling-prohibited zone. Although the Kolkata police often overlook these entries, at other times, ad hoc and orchestrated penalty drives have resulted in fines and

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Giselle Beiguelman

open sea”; “It would have been better to keep them all together and test some chemical weapons on these zombies, or even just set them on fire”; “They should offer euthanasia to these drug users and death penalty to the drug dealers. São Paulo, free of

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The Complexity of History

Russia and Steven Pinker’s Thesis

Nancy Shields Kollmann

incidence of the death penalty, sending many capital criminals to exile to Siberia or other frontier towns. Exile was not an imprisonment system; the convict was kept in place by sheer distance and by branding for the most serious of them. While in exile

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‘Which is the merchant here, and which the Jew?’

Alterity, Sameness and Irony in Venice

Anna Carleton Forrester

that in low simplicity / He lends out money gratis, and brings down / The rate of usance here with us in Venice’ (1.3.38–41). The confessional seems to anticipate the potentially fatal penalty Shylock proposes as an alternative to a high

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Financialization from the margins

Notes on the incorporation of Argentina's subproletariat into consumer credit (2009–2015)

Hadrien Saiag

the working class, because those relegated to the most precarious jobs are the most exposed to late fees and penalties (see also Guérin 2006 , 2014 ; Guérin, D'Espallier, and Venkatasubramanian 2013 ; Palomera 2013 ). I develop this argument first

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J. Cammaert Raval

Simon “Gakono” Kariuki, who was spared the death penalty due to age and instead sent to Wamumu, are especially revealing (191). Having lost an arm in a firefight, Simon was gifted a prosthetic arm while at Wamumu, and went on to run the department