This article traces the history of the forced conversion of Jews to Islam in al-Andalus and Morocco from the Middle Ages to modern times. An account is given of the various discriminative measures and even persecution to which Jewish converts were exposed. Indeed, even though they became with time sincere and learned Muslims, just as the Marranos in Christian Spain, the sincerity of their conversion was doubted and they were constantly accused of the negative traits attributed to the Jews. The article also discusses a recently discovered defence of the New Muslims authored by an Islamic scholar of Jewish origin which throws new light on the fate of these converts.
Crypto-Jews in Morocco and Their Fate
Paul B. Fenton
W. S. F. Pickering
Prolegomena Four caveats have to be entered at the outset. The first is that the term persecution is hard to define in a way that covers phenomena which some scholars would want to include, especially in the light of recent historical events. One calls to mind words commonly associated with phenomena of the past - martyrdom, massacre, torture, jihad. But in modern times further terms are crying for inclusion in a definition of persecution - the Holocaust, ethnic cleansing, genocide, communal violence, physical abuse, the violation of human rights. The task of trying to find a definition of persecution which would cover these and other terms is complex and demanding. It raises such difficult issues that some might want to argue that the diverse nature of phenomena that could be included under the concept of persecution makes the task of definition impossible. Indeed, the word persecution, some might go so far as to assert, is best abandoned as a workable concept. Since these issues are so large, they have to receive special attention which is beyond the scope of this paper.
In recent decades historians have done a lot to reveal the social and political diversity of the people who participated in the French Resistance. But little has been said about non-white resisters who were among the 200,000 men and women from the colonies living in the French metropole during the Occupation. This article shows that many of them were entangled in the Resistance as early as the summer of 1940 and that they became involved in the most political and violent forms of defiance. Resistance, however, was not a “natural” decision for many of the colonial workers or prisoners, whose daily struggles could bring them into tension with the Free French as well as Vichy. So, if this study aims to rectify misconceptions of the Resistance as an entirely Eurocentric affair, it also probes the complicated relationship between colonial subjects and the metropole during the war.
Melissa Raphael, Dorothea Magonet, and Frank Dabba Smith
the Afterword: ‘I made one more tapestry. I called it Loss. But I could have called it “radical acceptance” or even tranquillity … ’ (p. 76). Review Essay Marc Saperstein, Agony in the Pulpit: Jewish Preaching in Response to Nazi Persecution
In Memory of Sheila Shulman, who Loved Midrash
… This extract from Aphrahat’s elaborate and eloquent homily ‘On Persecution’ bears much affinity to the rabbinic texts A response to persecution, it may also reflect debate with contemporary Jews. Alternatively, or additionally, we might even suggest
During the night of 9 November 1938, the persecution of the Jewish communities in Germany reached a new level with the systematic and physical destruction of property, the elimination of intellectual and business leadership, and the demolition of
Or, hope is the first anthropological emotion
for, as it requires not only testifying to political conditions in an applicant's host country but also being a witness to their often horrific experiences of political persecution. Serving as an expert witness in political asylum court is a form of
level have been aimed at reducing numbers of asylum seekers, people whom the media identified as economic migrants simply seeking a better life and not fleeing persecution. The criminalization of migrants in the UK without proper documents, and the
Sound, Citizenship, and Disruptive Representations of Migration
asylum and racialized persecution. Protracted displacement fosters the development of new sound cultures, while histories of migration are at once recursive, looping and feeding back on themselves. These ideas develop out of extended fieldwork in Athens
Rachel T. Greenwald
Guenter Lewy, The Nazi Persecution of the Gypsies (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000)
Robert Gellately and Nathan Stolzfus, ed., Social Outsiders in Nazi Germany (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001)