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The New Economic Policy of 1962

How Israeli Economists Almost Changed the Israeli Economy

Ronen Mandelkern

(BoI), at the Ministry of Finance (MoF), and in academia persuaded political decision-makers to adopt the New Economic Policy. For this purpose, I utilize the concept of ‘policy entrepreneurship’, offered by John Kingdon (1995) , which sheds light on

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Georg Menz

English abstract: European immigration policy making has often been characterized either as a largely spill-over driven process or as “venue shopping,” a way to escape from the confines of national capitals. This article suggests that success in policy creation hinges crucially on the presence of a policy entrepreneur; while the European Commission faced propitious conditions for acting in this fashion, it did not always manage to do so. Drawing on the creation of key directives on asylum and labor migration as empirical case studies, the argument is developed that only when the European Commission exhibits the core characteristics of successful policy entrepreneurs does it succeed in shaping migration directives.

Spanish abstract: La formulación de la política migratoria europea a menudo se ha caracterizado ya sea como un gran proceso conducido por el desborde (“spillover”), o como un lugar de escape (“venue shopping”) de los confines de capitales nacionales. Este artículo sugiere que el éxito en la creación de políticas se basa esencialmente en la presencia de un emprendedor político, y mientras que la Comisión Europea enfrenta condiciones propicias para actuar de esa manera, no siempre logra hacerlo. Sobre la base de la creación de directivas centrales sobre asilo y migración laboral como casos empíricos de estudio, el argumento se desarrolla cuando la Comisión Europea presenta las características esenciales de un emprendedor político y logra éxitos en la conformación de las directivas de migración.

French abstract: L'élaboration de la politique migratoire européenne a souvent été caractérisée comme un processus piloté par spillover ou encore comme « venue shopping » d'évasion aux confins des capitales nationales. Cet article suggère que le succès de l'élaboration d'une politique dépend crucialement de la présence d'un entrepreneur politique ; et que, bien que la Commission européenne ait eu des conditions favorables pour agir dans ce sens, elle ne l'a pas toujours fait. S'appuyant sur la création des directives clés en matière d'asile et de la circulation de la main-d'œuvre comme sur des études de cas empiriques, l'argument ici développé montre que ce n'est que lorsque la Commission européenne aura réuni avec succès les qualités de base relatives à l'entrepreneuriat politique qu'elle parviendra à modeler les directives européennes sur la migration.

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Jonathan Bach, Heather L. Dichter, Kirkland Alexander Fulk, Alexander Wochnik, Wilko Graf von Hardenberg, and Carol Hager

accounts that paint German environmentalism as an unqualified success. He aims to avoid the “prophets and pioneers” approach to green history (5). The story of the greening of a country is not a simple story of policy entrepreneurship. Many of the

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Myra Marx Ferree, Jeffrey Luppes, Randall Newnham, David Freis, David N. Coury, Carol Hager, and Angelika von Wahl

years, allowing Germany to use its armed forces offensively if needed. She argues that policy entrepreneurship is the key mechanism through which this change has taken place. Opinion leaders in the Ministry of Defense and in the Bundestag shifted the

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Maoz Rosenthal

approaches. I assert that while structurally Knesset committees can be either idle forums for debate or rubber stamps in the policy process, in fact, due to the policy entrepreneurship of their chairs, Knesset committees can serve as meaningful settings for