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Helga A. Welsh

After the two German states unified in 1990, the tendency to transplant West German practices to the former East Germany was particularly pronounced in areas where systemic differences and perceived inefficiency met ideological reservations. The higher education system was among them. Comprehensive institutional, policy, and personnel transfer from West to East ensued. Starting in the mid 1990s after many failed initiatives, however, new policies were launched in the unified Germany. Reinforced by feedback from institutional and policy transfer to the East, factors such as Europeanization and globalization empowered newly formed advocacy coalitions to advance a reform agenda. Competition and performance seeded other ideas, prominent among them diversification, internationalization, autonomy, and accountability. Existing institutions and firmly rooted traditions still condition and limit change, and reforming the reforms has become commonplace. Differentiation among Länder and higher education institutions has become more pronounced, adding to the variety of outcomes. In ways unforeseen in 1990, some areas of the German higher education system have seen paradigmatic change, while others have survived relatively unscathed. The recalibration of the system continues, and reform pressure persists.

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Emma Terama, Juha Peltomaa, Catarina Rolim, and Patrícia Baptista

Potential of Car Sharing,” Transportation Research Procedia 14 (2016): 1296–1304. 29 Silvia Olsen and Nils Fearnley, “Policy Transfer of Public Transport Funding Schemes: The Case of Norway,” Research in Transportation Economics 48 (2014): 429–433. 30

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Introduction

Reconceptualizing Transit States in an Era of Outsourcing, Offshoring, and Obfuscation

Antje Missbach and Melissa Phillips

“incentivised policy transfers” (see also Cosgrave et al. 2016 ; Lavenex 2006 ). Migration management incentives include targeted development aid, specialized training of key government agencies, and capacity building. Potential destination countries seeking

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Tobias Schulze-Cleven

the difficulties of crossnational policy transfer. 20 Take, for instance, the attempts of the early Clinton administration in the United States. Seeking to actively learn from the German model, American policymakers moved to set up skill boards that

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When Transit States Pursue Their Own Agenda

Malaysian and Indonesian Responses to Australia's Migration and Border Policies

Antje Missbach and Gerhard Hoffstaedter

Policy Transfer.’ ” Australian Journal of International Affairs 68 ( 2 ): 177 – 193 . 10.1080/10357718.2013.841122 Nethery , Amy , Brynna Rafferty-Brown , and Savitri Taylor . 2013 . “ Exporting Detention: Australian-Funded Immigration

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Neglected Tropical Diseases

Creating a New Disease Grouping

Samantha Vanderslott

Public Health Policy Transfer and Dengue Fever in Putrajaya, Malaysia: A Critical Discourse Analysis .” Critical Public Health 22 ( 4 ): 407 – 418 . https://doi.org/10.1080/09581596.2012.659722 . 10.1080/09581596.2012.659722 Musgrove , Philip , and