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Kari Palonen

This article is a thought experiment. It constructs ideal types of political representation in the sense of Max Weber. Inspired by Quentin Skinner and others, the aim is to give a rhetorical turn to contemporary debates on representation. The core idea is to claim an ‘elective affinity’ (Wahlverwandschaft, as Weber says following Goethe) between forms of representation and rhetorical genres of their justification. The four ideal types of political representation are designated as plebiscitary, diplomatic, advocatory, and parliamentary, corresponding to the epideictic, negotiating, forensic, and deliberative genres of rhetoric as the respective ways to plausibly appeal to the audience. I discuss historical approximations of each type of representation and apply the combination of representation and rhetorical genres to the understanding of the European Union’s unconventional system of ‘separation of powers’. I conclude with supporting parliamentary representation, based on dissensus and debate, with complements from other types.

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Gustavo H. Dalaqua

dint of an analysis of the CIS, I show how direct participation mechanisms can democratise representative government. 3 Like legislative theatre in general, the CIS harnesses democracy to political representation. Democracy and Representation in

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“Revenge of the East”?

The AfD's Appeal in Eastern Germany and Mainstream Parties’ Responses

Jennifer A. Yoder

offers one explanation for the AfD's successes in the East and merits further attention. Representation: Demand and Supply Assuming that political representation involves a relationship between what people desire or fear in the context of politics

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The Modernity of Political Representation

Its Innovative Thrust and Transnational Semantic Transfers during the Sattelzeit (Eighteenth to Nineteenth Centuries)

Samuel Hayat and José María Rosales

inherent complexity of the term representation , 5 the rise of right-wing populism in Europe makes such rhetoric even more prevalent and disturbing. This challenge has been addressed by political theorists who show that political representation goes

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Christopher J. Allsobrook

In two recent books – Freedom Is Power: Liberty through Political Representation ( FIP ) and Are South Africans Free? – Lawrence Hamilton has developed and elaborated what he calls a ‘radically new’ conception of freedom. He argues that

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From “De Facto King” to Peasants’ Communes

A Struggle for Representation in the Discourse of the Polish Great Emigration, 1832–1846/48

Piotr Kuligowski

their ferocity. For instance, the field of controversy included the question of what to call the representatives of cities in the insurgent government, given that this stratum had been devoid of political representation in the Polish

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Brett Klopp

Cities have long been the destination of those on the move. Migration

and especially immigration always raise issues of inclusion and

exclusion, of rights and obligations, and of the meaning of membership

and citizenship. The particular form and content of these

debates vary, just as host countries, national and local governments,

and immigrant populations vary. Over the past few decades, patterns

of immigration have begun to shift away from classical immigration

countries (the United States, Canada, Australia) toward the democracies

of the European Union. “In this troubled world, Western

Europe has in fact, become a fragile island of prosperity, peace,

democracy, culture, science, welfare and civil rights,” according to

urban sociologist, Manuel Castells. “However, the selfish reflex of

trying to preserve this heaven by erecting walls against the rest of

the world may undermine the very fundamentals of European culture

and democratic civilization, since the exclusion of the other is

not separable from the suppression of civil liberties and a mobilization

against alien cultures.”

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Mona Tajali

Male leaders have often used women's bodies and dress as a means to regulate their access to formal politics, including to national parliaments. Through an analysis of women's activism surrounding the expansion of headscarved women's access to the parliament during the 2011 parliamentary elections in Turkey, I argue that pious women's public protests against discriminatory actions of male leaders towards headscarved women's candidacy challenged the hegemonic symbolism surrounding the headscarf as articulated by both secularist and conservative religious forces. The consequent discourse shift offered a new perspective on women's sexuality in the public arena and brought secular and pious women's rights groups, who rarely saw eye to eye with one another, closer as they realised that imposed dress codes are vehicles for their exclusion from formal politics.

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Sons of Krishna and sons of Bolivar

Charismatic kinship and leadership across India and Venezuela

Lucia Michelutti

This article uses the analytical tool of divine kinship to explore political charisma across Indian and Venezuelan democratic social revolutions. In both contexts, charismatic elected political leaders build their image of strength and action on a wide repertoire of cultural and religious resources that are legitimated by divine kinship. The juxtaposition of the Indian and Venezuelan political ethnographies shows how charismatic kinship inflects lived understandings of popular sovereignty and opens up spaces for holding personality politics accountable.

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The Future of Representative Politics

On Tormey, Krastev and Rosanvallon

Mihail Evans

representation. Indeed, despite their divergence there is one common assumption shared by both authors, that is, a narrow view of political representation that sees it focused on the election of legislative assemblies. I would argue that representation in