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The Syrian Civil War, sectarianism and political change at the Turkish–Syrian border

Şule Can

The Syrian Civil War has displaced millions of Syrian citizens since March 2011 and has drastically changed the lives of those in the Turkish–Syrian borderlands. Antakya (Hatay), which was annexed by the Republic of Turkey from Syria under the French Mandate in 1939, is a border province that hosts tens of thousands of Syrian refugees today. Although the province has long been renowned for its ethnic and religious diversity, the influx of Syrian refugees and Turkey's Syria policy have created new ethno‐religious conflicts and have shifted the dynamics of everyday life in Antakya. Drawing on micro‐historical approaches towards boundary‐making and state formation, this ethnographic study focuses first on how the Syrian Civil War has transformed urban everyday life in this border city and has redefined ethno‐religious boundaries and locals’ relationships to the state since 2011. Second, this article investigates the ways in which ‘sectarianism’ is implicated in the Turkish regime's approach to the Syrian Civil War and how sectarian discourses have shifted the political landscape in Antakya. This project suggests that in international conflicts between neighbouring states, the spatial, political and social divisions in border cities will increase as ethnic and religious identities become more politicised.

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Amílcar Cabral and Amartya Sen

Freedom, Resistance and Radical Realism

Lawrence Hamilton

horizons of what is possible and (seemingly) impossible ( Hountondji 1997 ). The radical realism that emerges from this comparison would demonstrate bolder ambition as regards political change, resistance to domination and fighting for freedom. Cabral and

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Silence Sits in Places

Chronic Illness and Memory in Northern Morocco

Federico Reginato

Abstract

Having become interested in the uprising of the Hirak movement and its denouncement of a ‘cancer epidemic’ in the Moroccan Rif, I ended up having what appeared to be a shattered experience, one broken by refusals to speak, miscommunication and bureaucratic barriers. Upon returning home, the very same silence that had surrounded my fieldwork then emerged as a resourceful tool with which to make sense of an opaque history. In this article, I will therefore consider silence as a social object that we encounter during fieldwork, as a positional issue and as an epistemological space. In this sense, engaging with what appears to be at the margin of everyday speech requires consideration of silence as something that is made powerful precisely by its being left unsaid.

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Political Culture and Political Change in Eastern Germany: Theoretical Alternatives

Laurence McFalls

In the past century, Germany, for better and for worse, offered itself

as a natural laboratory for political science. Indeed, Germany’s

excesses of political violence and its dramatic regime changes largely

motivated the development of postwar American political science,

much of it the work of German émigrés and German-Jewish

refugees, of course. The continuing vicissitudes of the German experience

have, however, posed a particular challenge to the concept of

political culture as elaborated in the 1950s and 1960s,1 at least in

part to explain lingering authoritarianism in formally democratic

West Germany. Generally associated with political continuity or only

incremental change,2 the concept of political culture has been illequipped

to deal with historical ruptures such as Germany’s “break

with civilization” of 1933-1945 and the East German popular revolution

of 1989. As well, even less dramatic but still important and relatively

rapid cultural changes such as the rise of a liberal democratic

Verfassungspatriotismus sometime around the late 1970s in West Germany3

and the emergence of a postmodern, consumer capitalist culture

in eastern Germany since 19944 do not conform to mainstream

political culture theory’s expectations of gradual, only generational

change. To be sure, continuity, if not inertia, characterizes much of

politics, even in Germany. Still, to be of theoretical value, the concept

of political culture must be able not only to admit but to

account for change.

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On the evolutions of the Arab Spring

Gilberto Conde

Abstract

This article looks back at the 2011 Arab Spring where the movements that brought hope to the region and beyond seem to have gone astray. The military has taken over in Egypt, while Libya, Syria and Yemen have descended into civil strife with tremendous human costs. Bahrain has witnessed repression that has overwhelmed the opposition, and while Tunisia, the country where Arab Spring began, has avoided the violence characterizing the aforementioned states, change has remained rather limited. As for other countries that rode on the same wave of mobilizations, hopes for democratic transformation have been subdued in some-what less violent contexts but with varying degrees of pressure from the state. This article examines what has happened to the Arab Spring countries, why and what is required to democratically transform the region.

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Changing Patterns of Allotment Gardening in the Czech Republic and Slovakia

Attila Tóth, Barbora Duží, Jan Vávra, Ján Supuka, Mária Bihuňová, Denisa Halajová, Stanislav Martinát, and Eva Nováková

Abstract

Allotment gardens have played a significant role in Czech and Slovak society for decades, building upon a rich history of gardening. This article elaborates on Czech and Slovak allotments in the European context and identifies their core functions, services, and benefits. We provide a thorough historical review of allotments in this region, reaching back to the eighteenth century to trace significant periods and historic events that shaped society in general and urban gardening in particular. We analyze the development of allotments until and after 1989 and illustrate key aspects of their present situation using case studies and examples. The article provides a complex historical narrative as a good basis for discussions on contemporary trends, challenges, and visions for the future of urban allotment gardening in both countries.

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Contested Citizenship

Public Schooling and Political Changes in Early Nineteenth Century Switzerland

Ingrid Brühwiler

free public schools. 7 Then, in 1848, the Swiss population adopted the Federal Constitution, which led to a representative democracy characterized by substantial cantonal sovereignty within a federal state. 8 All of these political changes were

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Belarusian Professional Protesters in the Structure of Democracy Promotion

Enacting Politics, Reinforcing Divisions

Alena Minchenia

perceived inability of the movement to bring political changes had an effect of exhausting the streams of new political activists and of disengagement of former members from oppositional organizations. These processes have not only reduced the activists

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Revolutionary circles

A morphology of radical politics

Martin Holbraad and Myriam Lamrani

myths—acts of revolutionary “meaning-formation” ( Thomassen 2012: 698 ) charting the social origination of political change—connects to a second, methodological point, about the shape that such an approach gives to the phenomenon of revolution. In

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Militaristic Discourse in Secondary Education History Textbooks during and after the Soeharto Era

Hieronymus Purwanta

the historical narratives. Regarding history textbook production, the political change should have reduced the level of militaristic discourse and replaced it with a more civilian narrative. An anomaly occurred in the sense that, in history textbooks