Classical polytheism or “paganism” presented a challenge to the Philhellenes of the Enlightenment, who found it difficult to accept that the greatest minds of antiquity had been taken in by (vide Fontenelle) “a heap of chimeras, delusions, and absurdities.” Rejecting the claim that “paganism” was a deformation of the “natural religion” of the early Hebrew patriarchs, several Enlightenment thinkers developed theories of classical polytheism, presenting it as the apotheosis of the great kings and heroes of the first ages of man, a system of allegorical symbols that conveyed timeless truths, and the effort of a prescientific mentality to understand the hidden forces of nature. Although divergent in their interpretations of “paganism,” these theories converged by separating its origins from Judeo-Christian traditions and presenting religion as an essentially human creation. Thus, Enlightenment theories of classical mythology contributed to the emergence of the more cosmopolitan and tolerant spirit that characterized the age.
Divine Fallibility in Athens and Jerusalem
Gabriel Kanter Webber
other. As polytheists, the Ancient Greeks had a huge mythographical advantage over the rabbis, because polytheism has a built-in way of incorporating the fallibility on which three-dimensional deity characterisation relies: Greek gods could show
Creed and Cognition in the Fourth Century
Combining history, theology, and the cognitive study of religion, this article offers a new interpretation of the origins and purpose of the fourth-century Trinitarian theology known as Homoianism, suggesting that it aimed to create an “entry-level“ Christianity as a first step in gradually easing polytheists into Christianity. It highlights the polemical nature of Homoianism's characterization as “Arianism,“ and examines the beliefs of Homoianism's proponents, including those of Ulfila, the “apostle of the Goths.“ This article suggests that the Homoian view of the Trinity attempted to map non-Christian intuitions of divinity onto the Christian doctrine of God. It points to Homoianism's Western origins on the Roman Empire's strategically important Danubian frontier, arguing that a Homoian creed should be seen not only in the wider context of the “Arian Controversy,“ but also as part of attempts to ensure the peaceful Romanization of the Goths.
A Conceptual Inquiry
Timo Pankakoski and Antto Vihma
fragmentation have emerged to describe modernity. Max Weber perceived modernity in terms of rationalization, disenchantment, and secularization and juxtaposed traditional authority with the modern “polytheism” of values. 81 Many of his categories found their
A Discussion of New Right Elements in German Right-wing Extremism Today
towards religious concerns. This extends from Christian and/or fundamentalist agendas and in particular to (neo) heathen, nature-centric, and/or Germanic polytheism in a “quest for a new religion of politics.” 16 The Rise and Fall of the New Right Without
religion has the potential to breed dogma as ‘dogmatic theology’ so clearly suggests. It cultivates problems of absolutism as, for example, three religions claim to be better just because they are monotheistic. They have rejected polytheism and invented