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Presence in Relationship

A New Construct for Understanding Adolescent Friendships and Psychological Health

Judy Y. Chu and Niobe Way

This article introduces the construct of “presence in relationship” along with a 25-item measure for its quantitative assessment. This construct expands upon the construct of “voice” as an indication of one’s experiences of self in relationships. Whereas voice focuses on the act of speaking out (saying what one thinks and feels) in relationships, presence in relationship further reflects the extent to which an individual feels connected to his or her self (is self-aware), connected to others (truly known and understood by others), and confident (trusting that one will be accepted and valued by others) within the context of interpersonal relationships. Results from the study of two samples of ethnically diverse middle school (N = 113; 59 males, 54 females) and high school (N = 176; 86 males, 90 females) students in New York City indicate that the Presence in Relationship Scale (PIRS) demonstrates good reliability and provides insight into adolescents’ friendship processes and sense of well-being. Because it includes indicators of the experience of self in relationships, as well as behavioral indicators, presence in relationship may be especially useful for understanding relationships and associated mental health outcomes in boys (and girls) who tend to place less emphasis on voice as a primary way of determining of closeness in relationships.

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Disharmonious Continuity

Critiquing Presence with Sartre and Derrida

Gavin Rae

The traditional interpretation of the Sartre-Derrida relationship follows their own insistence that they are separated by a certain irreducible distance. Contemporary research has, however, questioned that assessment, mainly by reassessing the thought of Sartre to picture him as a precursor to poststructuralism/deconstruction. This article takes off from this stance to suggest that Sartre and Derrida are partners against a common enemy—ontological presence— but develop different paths to overcome it: Sartre affirming nothingness and Derrida affirming différance. While much work has been done on these concepts, they have rarely been used as the exclusive means through which to engage with the Sartre-Derrida relationship. Focusing on them reveals that while Sartrean nothingness and Derridean différance are oriented against ontological presence, the latter entails a radicalization of the former. Their relationship is not then one of opposition but rather one of disharmonious continuity.

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A Purging Presence

The Dog in Zoroastrian Tradition

Mahnaz Moazami

As in many cultures Zoroastrians consider corpses as foci of pollution. Corpses are unclean and dangerous since they are afflicted by the demon of dead matter. As soon as the dying person loses consciousness, the demon of dead matter arrives from the north in the form of a fly and attacks the body. To counteract her influence, a corpse must be exposed to the gaze of a dog or a bird of prey before it is left exposed outside in the funerary tower. The dog’s presence forms an essential part of several Zoroastrian purification rituals. In this article we shall discuss two of these rituals: the sagdīd and the Baršnūm.

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Stéphane Gerson

Parti « sur les traces d’un inconnu » au dix-neuvième siècle, Le Monde retrouvé de Louis-François Pinagot marque, non pas un tournant, mais une étape significative dans l’oeuvre d’Alain Corbin. Ce livre détonne dans l’historiographie contemporaine, interpellant ses lecteurs dans sa conception et dans sa rhétorique. Il le fait dès ses premières pages, surtout dans ses premières pages: un « prélude » singulier, mélange de voix, de genres, de caractères typographiques qui appréhende Louis-François Pinagot, l’énigmatique sabotier percheron, dans sa présence et dans son absence. « Louis-François Pinagot a existé », lance Corbin en ouverture, avant de présenter l’ouvrage, un peu plus loin, comme une « méditation sur la disparition1 ».

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Between Practice and Theory

Dialogical Teaching and Art as Performative

Nathaniel Prottas

In this article, I consider the definition and use of the term dialogue in museum education, focusing on the work of Rika Burnham and Elliot Kai-Kee, whose ramifications for art itself have often been sidelined by educators. First, I examine the relationship between Burnham and Kai-Kee’s theory of education and Hans-Georg Gadamer’s and John Dewey’s writing on art, arguing that dialogical museum teaching implicitly relies on a definition of art as performative. Then, I explore the ramifications of Gadamer’s and Dewey’s definition of art as performative for the field of museum education. Finally, I argue that by understanding art as an active participant in our encounters with it—and by refocusing our attention on art’s role in museum educational practice—we create a radically new argument for museums as educational institutions that bring people and art into dialogue with each other.

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Andrei S. Markovits and Joseph Klaver

The Greens' impact on German politics and public life has been enormous and massively disproportional to the size of their electoral support and political presence in the country's legislative and executive bodies on the federal, state, and local levels. After substantiating the Greens' proliferating presence on all levels of German politics with numbers; the article focuses on demonstrating how the Greens' key values of ecology, peace and pacifism, feminism and women's rights, and grass roots democracy—the signifiers of their very identity—have come to shape the existence of all other German parties bar none. If imitation is one of the most defining characteristics of success, the Greens can be immensely proud of their tally over the past thirty plus years.

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Memory as Absence and Presence

Pilgrimage, “Archeo-Theology,“ and the Creativity of Destruction

Simon Coleman

This article explores forms of history and memory constructed around the Christian pilgrimage site of Walsingham, England. While exploring different ways of appropriating the past exhibited by pilgrims, ranging from “reliving,“ “remixing,“ and “reframing,“ the article argues that Walsingham's powerful symbolic resonances emerge in part from its role as a context for “archeotheology,“ whereby a sacramental religious ideology is reinforced by the forms of ruination evident at key points of the site.

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Milena Kirova

Our virtual seminar is dedicated to women intellectuals of East Europe; the topic involves isolating and shaping women’s most important roles in the present historical and political situation. In order to be more specific and perhaps more efficient, I am going to speak mainly about the reality I know best, that is, about the state of women intellectuals in Bulgaria, their problems in creating literature and the likelihood of ‘women’s writing’ in the country during the last seventeen years.

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The Muslim Presence in France and the United States

Its Consequences for Secularism

Jocelyne Cesari

All too often, the question of Muslim minorities in Europe and America is discussedsolely in socioeconomic terms or with a simplistic focus on the Islamicreligion and its purported incompatibility with democracy. This article focusesinstead on the secularism of Western host societies as a major factor in the integrationof Muslim minorities. It compares French and American secularismand argues that while French-style secularism has contributed to present tensionsbetween French Muslims and the French state, American secularism hasfacilitated the integration of Muslims in the United States—even after 9/11.

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Introduction

A Word of Welcome

Yousif M. Qasmiyeh

In creating a body within Migration and Society whose name comprises a noun (encounters) and an adjective (creative), it has been our aim not solely to place both of these constituents face to face. Rather, or in addition, we hope to situate the former in its never-complete state as a mode of infinite precincts and openness whereby dialogues between disciplines and subdisciplines are negotiated, reconfigured, and established whenever these creative encounters take place. In this sense, Creative Encounters is an invitation for the poetic, the narrative, and the visual to share the same space and cohabitate—certainly not as the same and/or according to predetermined conditions, but more precisely with an equal potential to assert their presence (their integral presence)—while maintaining a co-presence with other genres, fields, and subfields.