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Apprenticeship and Global Institutions

Learning Japanese Psychiatry

Joshua Breslau

How is the knowledge embedded in a global institution such as psychiatry integrated into taken-for-granted understandings and everyday medical practice in a non-Western setting such as Japan? How can ethnographic research address this question without simplifying institutional complexity and cross-cultural variations? This paper argues that the ethnography of apprenticeship can resolve these tensions between global and local sources of cultural knowledge. Recent work in cognitive anthropology and practice theory has demonstrated the value of examining apprenticeship as a window onto dynamics of institutional production and reproduction. As an ethnographic strategy, the study of apprenticeship makes the processes through which knowledge crosses cultural boundaries accessible to research. Drawing on two years of ethnographic research on the training of Japanese psychiatrists, I describe the institutional structure in which psychiatric knowledge becomes embedded in newly trained psychiatrists. This system, known as the ikyoku system, reproduces many characteristics of Japanese organizational patterns. Examining the details of this system offers additional insight into the particular way in which psychiatric knowledge becomes situated in contemporary Japanese society. The theory of apprenticeship, however, has a much broader potential for informing ethnographic research strategies for studying contemporary global institutions.

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Ronen Steinberg

The Reign of Terror in the French Revolution was a traumatic event, yet the language of trauma was not available to contemporaries of the revolutionary period. This article examines how physicians, revolutionary leaders, and men of letters thought about the effects of the Terror on self and society before the advent of modern trauma-talk. It shows that, in the context of the medical and philosophical theories available at the time, many saw the Terror as a constructive and therapeutic experience. This finding should complicate how historians apply the concept of trauma to account for past experiences. Based on this proposition, this article argues that it is not that the concept of trauma can help us understand the revolutionary era. Rather, it is that the changes brought about by the revolutionary era created the conditions for the emergence of modern trauma theory.

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Sympathy and Denial

A Postcolonial Re-reading of Emotions, Race, and Hierarchy

Alice Bullard

This essay uses transference, in the psychoanalytic sense, to illuminate the history of emotions in the era of late imperialism. Centered on Frantz Fanon's rejoinder to Octave Mannoni's dependency theory and his rejection of Freud's theory of the Oedipal complex, this essay provides as well a broader scholarly understanding of French psychiatry in North and West Africa, and the prominence therein of sympathy, magic, denial, and transference.

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Emotional Latitudes

The Ambiguities of Colonial and Post-Colonial Sentiment

Matt Matsuda and Alice Bullard

A collection of essays dedicated to the history of sentiment and emotions in the constitution of imperial and colonial projects. Subjects range from eighteenth-century marriage and military careers, to ethnically mixed couples during the Great War, to contemporary "arranged marriage" television programs in Madagascar. The collection also traces constructions of nineteenth and twentieth-century female slavery in Morocco, and meditations on family rooted and professional contexts in Laos and New Caledonia, complicating links between personal experience and historiographic knowledge. A closing essay draws together many of the themes with a detailed reading of key texts in colonial and postcolonial psychiatry.

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Tina Campt: Other Germans: Black Germans and the Politics of Race, Gender, and Memory in the Third Reich (Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press 2004)

Review by Kader Konuk

Agnes C. Mueller, ed., German Pop Culture: How “American” Is It? (Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press, 2004)

Review by Barbara Mennel

David Crew, ed., Consuming Germany in the Cold War (Oxford and New York: Berg Publishers, 2003)

Review by Jennifer Jenkins

Paul Lerner, Hysterical Men. War, Psychiatry, and the Politics of Trauma in Germany, 1890-1930 (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2003)

Review by Frank Biess

Pertti Ahonen, After the Expulsion. West Germany and Eastern Europe 1945–1990, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003)

Review by Henning Süssner

Jan-Werner Müller, A Dangerous Mind: Carl Schmitt in Postwar European Thought (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003)

Review by Peter C. Caldwell

Gerhard Hirscher and Karl-Rudolf Korte, eds., Information und Entscheidung: Kommunikationsmanagement der Politisichen Führung (Wiesbaden: Westdeutscher Verlag GmbH, 2003)

Review by Steven A. Weldon

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Understanding the Zār

An African-Iranian Healing Dance Ritual

William O. Beeman

This article explores the structure and meaning of the Zār ceremony as carried out throughout the Persian Gulf. This ceremony is mirrored by similar ones throughout North and East Africa, suggesting that the Zār may have resulted from cultural diffusion along historical trade routes. The Zār practitioners, the bābā and the māmā, must cultivate extensive skills in musical performance, movement and coordination in order to affect a palliative relief for persons affected by spirit ‘winds’ that inhabit them, causing physical and emotional distress. The Zār ceremony is an important method of non-allopathic treatment for emotional disorders that might elsewhere be treated through psychiatry in clinical settings. Practitioners see it as compatible with Islam, though not a strictly Islamic practice.

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Portrait

Ann Taves

Gustavo Benavides, Thomas J. Coleman III, Ralph W. Hood Jr., Richard Sosis, and Ann Taves

As the first invitee to this portrait section trained as a scholar of religion and situated in a department of religious studies, I was interested to see how previous scholars trained in anthropology and sociology positioned themselves in relation to ‘religion’ as an object of study. It seems we all do so gingerly. Although my graduate work was in the history of Christianity with a focus on American religious history, since the early 1990s I have self-consciously positioned my historical research in an interdisciplinary space between psychiatry, anthropology, and religious studies in order to explore the contestations surrounding unusual experiences. During the last decade, I have been identifying myself less as a historian and more as an interdisciplinary scholar attempting to bring both humanistic and cognitive social scientific methods to the study of historical experiences and events. From this vantage point, I would argue, as Maurice Bloch (2010) did in the first volume of this journal, that ‘religion’ is not a natural kind but a complex cultural concept and that a theory of religion per se is impossible.

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Ghostly Presences OUT THERE

Transgender Girls and Their Families in the Time of COVID

Sally Campbell Galman

Children and Adolescents in the Context of COVID-19 .” Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry . https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2020.05.009 . 10.1016/j.jaac.2020.05.009

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Ignoring Symptoms

The Process of Normalising Sensory Experiences after Cancer

Tone Seppola-Edvardsen and Mette Bech Risør

‘sensation scripts’ as argued for by Hinton et al. (2008: 142) . Hinton et al. propose a heuristic use of these concepts and their aim is to contribute to knowledge within psychiatry about sensations as cultural and differing across cultures. We argue that

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Rikke Sand Andersen, Mark Nichter, and Mette Bech Risør

knowledge constructing both culture and social relations has influenced the creation of a ‘medical anthropology of sensations’. In a special issue of Transcultural Psychiatry several researchers embarked on presenting an agenda for this to explore the