In Western societies, the boundaries of the freedom of expression had traditionally been expanding, while the boundaries of religion and 'good morals' had been receding. Since the last decade however, this expansion has slowed down, come to a halt, and ultimately reversed. In Europe, anxiety over the expression of protest through violent means has steadily caused governments to abandon the traditional, seemingly limitless adherence to freedom of expression. Political fear over controversy has come to dominate the climate of commissioning public art. In a polarized world, the debate on what is tolerable has taken on an acute urgency. The art world itself no longer has an answer. After a half-century of autonomy, it has succeeded in demolishing its own authority by ridiculing every aspect of external criticism. The only solution now will be a new form of dialogue with all stakeholders involved.
Public Art in a Multicultural Society
Art, Infrastructure, and Eduardo Chillida's Unbuilt Monument to Tolerance
. Whereas Brian Larkin (2013 , 2018 ) has articulated the need to incorporate questions of aesthetics in the study of infrastructure, I want to introduce an infrastructural perspective in the study of (certain) artworks. Large public art projects such as
The Politics of Monuments
This text looks at the function of monuments and to some extent architecture in the public space. It focuses especially on those countries that have undergone sweeping historical changes, such as Romania, Germany, and Russia, while attempting to convey not only the historical and cultural information but the very personal, physical sensations of the encounter a human being might have when in the proximity of monuments and spaces. The images are 360 degree surround photography, where the photographer's location constituted the very center of the image, thus making the photographer's subjectivity the invisible monument of the seemingly documentary image.
Art as a Healthy Virus within Social Strategies of Resistance
The Egnatia Road project describes a cooperative action between European artists and local populations along the ancient route from Rome to Constantinople. Focusing on myths and memories of territorial and metaphorical displacement over centuries, it represents a space of resistance realized in narrative and physical action. The process of constructing the road engages artistic activism and local communities in creating a participatory cultural product. Begun as a road trip to the Balkans, the research in history, storytelling, and half-forgotten traditions has resulted in the creation of mobile laboratories and events involving a range of people and experiences. The ongoing intention has been to produce paving stones recording the personal and communal experiences of people along the road. As an exercise in public art, the project has raised new questions and insights into the nature of popular dissent and the role of art in giving it a voice in wider venues and situations.
The Girl and Youth-Led Street Art Movement to #StopStreetHarassment
Natasha Harris-Harb and Sophie Sandberg
for this work. The extensive global research done by Stop Street Harassment, the focus on digital story-telling by Hollaback!, and the beautiful public art portraits by Tatyana Fazlalizadeh that demand the public to “Stop Telling Women to Smile” have
Repatriation and Ritual, Repatriation as Ritual
Laura Peers, Lotten Gustafsson Reinius, and Jennifer Shannon
, and the power of ritual to both articulate and to alter existing patterns of politics and sociality. Existing literature has considered museums as both ritual and secularizing spaces. Carol Duncan’s (2005: 8) Civilizing Rituals: Inside Public Art
The Emergence of a Community of Practice
Esther Helen McNaughton
. An example of this was Dunedin Public Art Gallery's series of short online art workshops called DPAG Art @ Home for children and their families. Workshops used minimal materials and were accessed through the gallery's website. The DPAG produced
situating the festival within a well-established public art space, it allowed for the possibility of overlap between the CCA’s regular predominantly middle-class patrons and the festival goers, thus cultivating a more eclectic and diverse cinematic culture
Navigating a critical ethnography of wealth elites
with archiving the life history of Paulo Figueira, it also hosted public art exhibitions and educational workshops. The company also prided itself on its model record of adherence to global CSR directives, and monitored its annual performance against
artistic tendencies such as participatory art, socially engaged art, community art, and public art ( Bishop 2012 ; Bradley and Esche 2007 ; Thompson 2012 ). The theoretical framework that was developed to examine these practices will be employed here to