After market reforms in the late 1990s, the traditional, historical patterns of reindeer herding underwent local differentiation across Russia. The common notion was that the cessation of state support for reindeer herding led to a general reduction
This article examines the reindeer-herding lexicon in the language of the Alutor Koryaks, including two hypero-hyponymic groups: (1) names of herds and parts of herds and (2) names of reindeer harnesses and their parts. My analysis focuses on simple
A Case Study from a Dukha Reindeer Herder Summer Camp, Khövsgöl Aimag, Mongolia
Madeline E. Mackie, Todd A. Surovell, and Matthew O'Brien
Stone alignments are found worldwide in the archaeological record. As with many archaeological phenomena, these features are often assumed to have been constructed by adults. During ethnoarchaeological fieldwork with Dukha reindeer herders in Khövsgöl Aimag, Mongolia, we observed stone alignments, or “playhouses”, that were constructed by children alongside other stone features that had been constructed by adults. In this paper, we compare stone size and frequency within and between adult- and child-constructed rock alignments. We found that features created by children are characterized by numerous stones of comparatively low weight, while adult features typically have fewer and larger stones. Stones within features created by children also exhibit greater variation in size. We attribute these differences to physical limitations of children and the intended functions of stones in each case. This ethnographic case can serve as a guide for the identification of the authorship of stone features in archaeological contexts.
By a twist of fate, Noglikskii District in northeastern Sakhalin Island, the Russian Far East, has ended up at the epicenter of huge multinational offshore oil and gas developments. The two most advanced of these are the projects Sakhalin-1 and Sakhalin-2, whose operators are Exxon Neftegaz Ltd. (ExxonMobil) and Sakhalin Energy Investment Company Ltd. or Sakhalin Energy (Shell) respectively. Sakhalin-2 started production in 1999, while Sakhalin-1 started production in 2005. Further projects to develop the oil and gas reserves of Sakhalin’s northern shelf are still in the exploratory phase. Another major oil company—British Petroleum (BP)—is planning to take part in Sakhalin-5, togetherwith its Russian partner Rosneft’. The Sakhalin-5 Project is focused more on Noglikskii District’s northern neighbor, Okhinskii District. As expected, Northern Sakhalin is experiencing significant consequences from these projects: ecological, social, and also cultural, as indigenous peoples still practice their traditional livelihood activities in northern Sakhalin. This article explores the local changes wrought by the Sakhalin offshore oil and gas projects in Noglikskii District. After providing a background to Noglikskii District, its people, history, and natural environment, the article focuses specifically on the relationship between the oil and gas extraction activities of the Sakhalin-1 and Sakhalin-2 projects and the reindeer husbandry and hunting activities of the local populations. The article describes efforts by the companies to mitigate negative project impacts and to promote development opportunities. Company-community and company-contractor relations are also discussed.
Movement, Kinetic Distribution, and Personhood among Siberian Eveny
In this article, I consider the notions of time, space, and destiny that are interwoven in the constitution of human and animal personhood among Siberian Eveny reindeer herders and hunters. I pay particular attention to the ways in which personhood
The Political Economy of Desire and Competing Matrimonial Emotions
in rural Nenets communities on Yamal—including both mobile tundra reindeer herders and villagers in more sedentary occupations, such as teachers, farm and kindergarten workers, nurses, and so on—is unique or different from other Russian regions and
Pragmatic Use of Infrastructure and Reflexive Mobility of Evenkis and Dolgans
Vladimir N. Davydov
static observer. This article employs a phenomenological perspective for the analysis of mobility. However, it does not concentrate on the differences between the mobility patterns of hunters, reindeer herders, and fishers or the problem of how new
experience technological change and the resulting social, economic, and environmental impacts. In the late 1960s, Pertti Pelto studied these processes in the context of snowmobile adoption among Saami 1 reindeer herders in Scandinavia. The almost complete
Based on fieldwork in Zabaikal'e, this report describes Orochen hunters' and reindeer herders' uses and interpretations of fire. Ethnographic evidence presents a wide use of fire and smoke in daily life in the taiga. Fire and smoke play a crucial role in reindeer herding and hunting of ungulates and fur animals. The author argues that fire symbols are an important part of Orochen cosmology and relate to broader themes of hunting magic, mastery, and the perception of animals. Research into the cosmological knowledge of fire uses provides us with a broader scope of interpretation of camping characteristics and land use.
Heli Saarikoski and Kaisa Raitio
This article illustrates the interconnectedness of science and politics through a case study of old-growth forest conflict in Finnish Upper Lapland. It demonstrates the ways in which “traditional science“ has failed to settle the decades-long conflict between state forestry and traditional Sámi reindeer herding, and discusses the potential of democratization of science through more inclusive forms of knowledge production. The analysis, which is based on qualitative interview data, shows that a traditional science focus on biological indicators and mathematical modeling has provided only a partial account of the reindeer herding-forestry interactions by ignoring the local, place-specific practices that are equally important in understanding the overall quality of pasture conditions in Upper Lapland. It concludes that an inclusive inquiry, structured according to the principles of joint fact-finding, could create a more policy-relevant, and also more scientifically robust, knowledge basis for future forest management and policy decisions.