This article examines the reindeer-herding lexicon in the language of the Alutor Koryaks, including two hypero-hyponymic groups: (1) names of herds and parts of herds and (2) names of reindeer harnesses and their parts. My analysis focuses on simple
A Case Study from a Dukha Reindeer Herder Summer Camp, Khövsgöl Aimag, Mongolia
Madeline E. Mackie, Todd A. Surovell, and Matthew O'Brien
Stone alignments are found worldwide in the archaeological record. As with many archaeological phenomena, these features are often assumed to have been constructed by adults. During ethnoarchaeological fieldwork with Dukha reindeer herders in Khövsgöl Aimag, Mongolia, we observed stone alignments, or “playhouses”, that were constructed by children alongside other stone features that had been constructed by adults. In this paper, we compare stone size and frequency within and between adult- and child-constructed rock alignments. We found that features created by children are characterized by numerous stones of comparatively low weight, while adult features typically have fewer and larger stones. Stones within features created by children also exhibit greater variation in size. We attribute these differences to physical limitations of children and the intended functions of stones in each case. This ethnographic case can serve as a guide for the identification of the authorship of stone features in archaeological contexts.
After market reforms in the late 1990s, the traditional, historical patterns of reindeer herding underwent local differentiation across Russia. The common notion was that the cessation of state support for reindeer herding led to a general reduction
The Meaning of Local Landscape in the Pallastunturi Fells
Nature and environment are important for the people earning their living from natural sources of livelihood. This article concentrates on the local perspective of the landscape in the Pallastunturi Fells, which are situated in Pallas-Ylläs National Park in Finnish Lapland. The Fells are both important pastures for reindeer and an old tourism area. The Pallastunturi Tourist Hotel is situated inside the national park because the hotel was built before the park was established 1938. Until the 1960s, the relationship between tourism and reindeer herding had been harmonious because the tourism activities did not disturb the reindeer herding, but offered instead ways to earn money by transporting the tourists from the main road to the hotel, which had been previously without any road connections. During recent years, tourism has been developed as the main source of livelihood in Lapland and huge investments have been made in several parts of Lapland. One example of this type of investment is the plan to replace the old Pallas Tourist hotel, which was built in 1948, with a newer and bigger one. It means that the state will allow a private enterprise to build more infrastructures for tourism inside a national park where nature should be protected and this has sparked a heated debate. Those who oppose the project criticise this proposal as the amendment of a law designed to promote the economic interests of one private tourism enterprise. The project's supporters claim that the needs of the tourism industry and nature protection can both be promoted and that it is important to develop a tourist centre which is already situated within the national park. This article is an attempt to try to shed light on why the local people are so loudly resisting the plans by a private tourism enterprise to touch the national park. It is based on my fieldwork among reindeer herding families in the area.
experience technological change and the resulting social, economic, and environmental impacts. In the late 1960s, Pertti Pelto studied these processes in the context of snowmobile adoption among Saami 1 reindeer herders in Scandinavia. The almost complete
Inclusive vs. Exclusive Senses of Property among the Tozhu and Tofa of Southern Siberia
The Tofa and Tozhu peoples of southern Siberia are closely related ethnically, linguistically, geographically, and in their traditional economic activities of reindeer herding, hunting, and gathering. However, they have long been divided by administrative boundaries, leading to different historical trajectories and drastic differences in their sense of property rights. The Tofa have a much longer history of interaction with Russians and other incomers than the Tozhu. Many Tofa now find themselves without official hunting grounds, while those who have rights to hunting grounds guard them jealously. This situation is striking in contrast to the sense of property just across the border in the Tozhu district of the Republic of Tyva, where non-exclusivity is still the salient feature of Tozhus' sense of property today. This article discusses changes in the distribution of hunting grounds among the Tofa, and compares the Tofa's sense of exclusive rights of access to the remarkably inclusive approach among the Tozhu.
Movement, Kinetic Distribution, and Personhood among Siberian Eveny
In this article, I consider the notions of time, space, and destiny that are interwoven in the constitution of human and animal personhood among Siberian Eveny reindeer herders and hunters. I pay particular attention to the ways in which personhood
Translator : Tatiana Argounova-Low
this sensitive topic. In 2001–2002 Leonid Lar and I conducted interviews with local reindeer herders and fishermen in Tazovskii District. Through these interviews we were able to identify, describe, and map 263 sacred sites. All described sites include
The Political Economy of Desire and Competing Matrimonial Emotions
in rural Nenets communities on Yamal—including both mobile tundra reindeer herders and villagers in more sedentary occupations, such as teachers, farm and kindergarten workers, nurses, and so on—is unique or different from other Russian regions and
The story of one family's struggle with Shamanism
David G. Anderson and Nataliia A. Orekhova
This contribution consists of excerpts from the diary of a missionary-priest, preceded by an introduction to him and his descendants. Mikhail Suslov was a central figure in the Enisei Missionary Society in the late nineteenth century. He had a deep sympathy for the peoples with whom he came in contact, attempting to understand the shamanic world-view as well as to spread Orthodoxy. His son, also Mikhail, served a six-year apprenticeship with Evenki reindeer-herders before following in his father's footsteps. The third in the line, Innokentii Mikhailovich, became an early Bolshevik administrator, adopting an approach, recalling that of his grandfather to an earlier stage of modernisation. The excerpts from the diary evocatively describe the harsh conditions of the natural setting, the way of life of the native peoples, and aspects of their reception of Russian culture.