This article reviews the history of Israeli football from 1948 to the present and argues that Israeli football is ‘made in Israel’ according to the particular historical opportunities that determine the ‘relative autonomy’ of the game in a given period. The first part deals with a period (the 1950s) in which football was subject to politics, the dominant force in Israeli society at the time. During that period, Israeli football was organized by three sports federations, each affiliated with a different political camp. The second part deals with the period from 1990 to the present, in which football clubs were privatized and players became commodities. The contrast between these two periods highlights how the political-economic milieu set effective limits on the structure and practice of Israeli football.
Amir Ben Porat
Football and Society in Israel—a Story of Interdependence
Tamar Rapoport and Amir Ben Porat
Israel, where it has been played every weekend all over the country since before the establishment of the state. Football is not just a game that children and adults love to play and watch; it also involves individual, group, and collective identities, and local and national identification. Football reflects, and often accentuates, political and social conflicts that highlight ethno-national, class, political, and gender hierarchies and tensions in society. The game is largely dependent on the surrounding context(s) that determines its “relative autonomy,” which shapes its distinguished fandom culture(s) and practices (Rapoport 2016).
Une sociologie d’État
It is traditional to discuss the relation between Durkheim and Weber as ‘founders of sociology’. At first sight, it might seem odd to couple Durkheim and Hegel. But it can be instructive to compare their approach to issues involving modern individualism, society and the state. In general, they subscribe to a combination of rationalism and developmental ethics, in which the rational is immanent in the real, despite the possibility of ‘contingent’ or ‘pathological’ departures from ‘normality’. More specifically, in the case of the state, they see one of its main historical roles as the emancipation of the individual in a development of the individual personality. At the same time they picture the state as ‘the brain’ of society and insist on its relative autonomy and independence from individuals. Instead, in a critique of direct democracy, they look to a web of intermediate groups and corporations. A basic problematic in their work, and a continuing source of reflection, is how to achieve a balance between individual rights and a necessary authority and legitimacy of public power. In both cases this balance rests, as a matter of principle, on confidence in the skills and civic virtue of political leaders.
through relying on the relative autonomy of panels. Roca’s innovative approach to comics form thus simultaneously serves as a visual metaphor reinforcing the themes of reconciliation amongst siblings and of the individual acceptance of grief stemming from
, relative autonomy, structure in dominance, subjects as Träger (bearers), determination in the last instance. This, dare I say it, was the mantra – it was ‘articulation’ all the way down (of elements, of instances, of the structure – of the social whole
The Two Hidden Categories of ‘La doctrine d'Émile Durkheim’
of individual in Halbwachs’ thought, or the importance of social morphology We agree with Hirsch to say that, even more than Durkheim who granted collective representations relative autonomy compared to social morphology, Halbwachs shows by this
Participatory Humanitarian Architecture in the Jarahieh Refugee Settlement, Lebanon
Riccardo Luca Conti, Joana Dabaj, and Elisa Pascucci
significant developments in Jarahieh. This is because they highlight the inevitable embeddedness of humanitarian architecture—like any architecture—in relations of exchange, labor, and reproduction. The relative autonomy of these relations from NGOs
Infrastructural Transformations in the Chao Phraya Delta, Thailand
Atsuro Morita and Casper Bruun Jensen
to understand the “fraught dialectical relations” between state centers and “zones of relative autonomy” (ibid.: 2). While we are not out to develop a general political theory, we take inspiration from the argument that there is a connection between
Questioning our post-secondary institutions’ investment strategies
David P. Thomas
and classroom practices to ensure students can develop the relative autonomy necessary to be empowered to analyse, criticize, and question’. As the case study presented later in the article will demonstrate, this can involve open discussions with
Rolf Dieter Hepp
expression is struggling for discursiveness. The competition within the new middle classes is experienced as an emblem of their identity and their social opportunities legitimized by this self-understanding. While the artist acts in relative autonomy in the