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Freedom, Salvation, Redemption

Theologies of Political Asylum

Elizabeth Shakman Hurd

right to religious freedom. It is easier to privilege religious freedom and choice than to question these categories, their histories, and their varied legal expressions. In the asylum field, in the United States but also internationally, to talk about

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Adjudicating Religious Intolerance

Afro-Brazilian Religions, Public Space, and the National Collective in Twenty-First-Century Brazil

Elina I. Hartikainen

them can be shown to have infringed on the victims’ religious freedoms. And they require courts to position the aggressions in question within a broader legal context in which the right to religious freedom must be balanced with other equally weighty

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Remaking the Mosaic

Religious Leaders and Secular Borders in the Colonial Levant

Alexander D. M. Henley

The colonial view of Levantine society as a mosaic of religions established lasting precedents for communal self-governance and power sharing in modern states. Yet it ironically disguises the extent to which the region's religious geography was reimagined by colonial rule. Principles of religious freedom and minority rights combined with a perception of 'oriental religions' to create a unique and powerful place for religious leaders to govern. The borders that would define national societies in Palestine-Israel, Lebanon, and Syria also remade the boundaries by which the religious mosaic was structured. This article will highlight institutional change in the Maronite Christian and Sunni Muslim communities, showing how each reformulated its religious leadership in response to the creation and enforcement of Lebanon's borders with Palestine and Syria from 1920 to 1948. The 'traditional' religious leaderships of today are in no small part products of the same colonial 'lines in the sand' within which nations were formed.

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Changing rights and wrongs

The transnational construction of indigenous and human rights among Vietnam's Central Highlanders

Oscar Salemink

In the context of the conflict-ridden relationship with the Vietnamese state and the growing transnational interference by their vociferous diaspora, this paper analyzes particular shifts in the framing of their rights. A notion of collective group rights that are by definition particularistic and exclusive has given way to individual rights (especially religious freedom) that are universal and inclusive. Simultaneously, a localized and communal emphasis has changed to a transnational one oriented toward international fora. Local interests and aspirations thus come to be framed as universal human rights that pertain to individuals, rather than local rights that pertain to collectives. In this light, recent attempts to theorize minority or indigenous rights appear to be ineffective and will probably be counter-productive.

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Christopher Hill, Sara Silvestri, and Elif Cetin

The migration crisis is analyzed here in the context of the challenges that Italy faces as a country of immigration during a period of recession. It is argued that there has been no serious debate in Italy on multiculturalism or on religious freedom, despite the growing sociocultural and religious diversity arising from population movements and international conflict. The analysis begins with the Italian government’s attempts in 2015 to deal with migration and diversity and the associated domestic conflicts at the levels of both party politics and civil society. The external dimension of Italian politics is examined in terms of Rome’s impatient calls for EU help and the weak political position of Italy in relation to the root causes of migration. After discussing the meaning of the Christian/Catholic identity of the country in its present state, the chapter concludes that Rome has little choice but to develop a more long-term view with regard to diversity and integration.

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Ryan Goeckner, Sean M. Daley, Jordyn Gunville, and Christine M. Daley

Abstract

The No Dakota Access Pipeline resistance movement provides a poignant example of the way in which cultural, spiritual, and oral traditions remain authoritative in the lives of American Indian peoples, specifically the Lakota people. Confronted with restrictions of their religious freedoms and of access to clean drinking water due to construction of the Dakota Access Pipeline (DAPL), members of Lakota communities engaged with traditions specific to their communities to inform and structure the No DAPL resistance movement. A series of interviews conducted on the Cheyenne River Sioux Nation with tribal members reveal that Lakota spiritual traditions have been integral to every aspect of the movement, including the motivations for, organization of, and understanding of the future of the movement.

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Johannes Lähnemann

The proposed Standards for interreligious textbook research and development are the result of an interreligious and international process of consultation. In the tension between a 'clash of civilisations' and the 'dialogue among civilisations', school textbooks have an important task. In many countries they are practically the 'teacher of teachers'. Based on the research project, “the representation of Christianity in textbooks of countries with an Islamic tradition“, discussions between scholars in different countries have taken place. The standards are proposed as possible guidelines for author teams and publishers, for education authorities and curriculum planners. Issues and tasks are envisaged under eight headings: covering the questions of an authentic portrayal of religions, developing a dialogue-orientated interpretation of religion, portraying religions' importance in the life of real people, dealing carefully with religions' history, with their cultural heritage and their context and with the controversial issues of mission, religious freedom and tolerance. Mutual understanding in the field of ethics should also be reflected. Last but not least, the life conditions of the students and their relevance for religious learning are to be taken seriously. Pedagogical and media didactic approaches have to accept the students as independent partners in the learning processes.

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'Fire from Above, Fire from Below'

Health, Justice and the Persistence of the Sacred

James R. Cochrane

The essay refers to a concern for social justice in the origins of public health, borne in part by religious commitments, and to more recent expressions of a similar concern in debates about health equity. Equity, moreover, is affected by discursive power relations (dominant/hegemonic versus local/suppressed), which are discussed in relation to current research in the African Religious Health Assets Programme on the interaction of particular 'healthworlds' (a conceptual innovation) that shape the choices and behaviour of health-seekers. Two background theoretical positions guide the argument: Amartya Sen's claim that development is linked to freedom (including religious freedom); and, building on Sen's and Martha Nussbaum's human capabilities theory, an asset-based community approach to the building or reconstruction of public health systems. On this basis, it is argued that health systems and health interventions are just to the extent that they mediate between the necessary leadership or polity from 'above' (techné) and the experience and wisdom (métis) of those who are 'below', taking into account the asymmetries of power that this equation represents. Because difference and diversity are so often expressed in what we might reasonably call 'religious' terms, I specifically emphasize the continuing persistence of religion and, hence, the importance of accounting for its pertinence in social theory generally, and in relation to discourses of health and justice in the African context specifically. Acknowledging the ambiguities of religion, I nevertheless argue that an appreciative alignment between public health systems and religious or faith-based initiatives in health promotion, prevention and care is crucial to sustainable and just health systems in Africa.

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Introduction

Religious Plurality, Interreligious Pluralism, and Spatialities of Religious Difference

Jeremy F. Walton and Neena Mahadev

(s) both within and among communities of practice and affiliation. Even more misleadingly, this liberal romance neglects the power of discourses of interreligious pluralism, religious freedom, and tolerance in the contemporary world ( Brown 2006 ; Hurd

Open access

the Sacred: Native American Religious Freedom beyond the First Amendment ( Oxford : Princeton University Press ). Mortimer , L. ( 2019 ), Roger Sandall's Films and Contemporary Anthropology: Explorations in the Aesthetic, the Existential, and