This article examines Locke's slippery notion of consensual taxation. Locke insisted that property right entailed that all taxes be voluntary, requiring the consent of the taxpayer or the consent of a majority of representatives. However, Locke did not think that everyone who paid sales taxes was entitled to vote for the government to which they were subject but claimed that these taxes were passed on to, and borne by, landowners. Taxes on land were voluntary in that they were subject to gentlemanly agreements between landowners, whereas excise taxes fell on all without their consent. Locke did not specify a property qualification for the franchise in his Two Treatise of Government, as he did in other writings, but indicated that political representation should be proportionate to tax burdens. Although Locke's doctrine of taxation and representation is far from clear and unambiguous, the legacy of voluntary taxation continues to haunt us.
Daniel T. Levin and Caryn Wang
Levin and Simons (2000) argued that perceptual experience in film and the real world share a deep similarity in that both rely on inferences that visual properties are stable across views. This article argues that the perception and representation of visual space also reveal deep commonalities between film and the real world. The article reviews psychological research on visual space that suggests that we not only attend to similar spatial cues both in film and in nonmediated settings, but also that the rules for combining and selecting among these cues are similar. In exploring these links, it becomes clear that there is a bidirectional relationship between cognitive psychology and film editing that allows each to provide important insights about the other.
The Case of Participatory Budgeting in Porto Alegre, Brazil
At the same time as democracy has 'triumphed' in most of the world, it leaves many unsatisfied at the disjuncture between the democratic ideal and its practical expression. Participatory practices and institutions, as exemplified in the participatory budgeting process of the local government of Porto Alegre in Brazil, claim to embody a more substantive version of democracy that can settle this deficit. This article interrogates this promise through examining closely the case of Porto Alegre. In addition to demonstrating clear democratic outcomes, this examination also reveals that the meaning of democratic deepening is not cashed out exclusively in terms of participation but in terms of representation too. More specifically, participatory budgeting serves to broaden representation in the budgeting process as a whole, by better including and amplifying the voice of marginalised groups in aspects of the budgeting process, albeit through participatory practices and events. On reflection this should not be surprising as participatory budgeting introduces new decision-making procedures that supplement rather than replace existing representative institutions, and reform rather than transform expenditure patterns. Thus although termed participatory, at the level of the municipal system as a whole, participatory institutions assist in better representing the interests of marginalised groups in decision-making through participatory means. Deepening democracy, therefore, at least as far as new participatory institutions are concerned, is about new forms of representation and participation, rather than replacing representation with participation.
When visiting the Severobaikal'skii Museum of Local History in Nizhneangarsk in 2012 and later in 2016, I had a sense of the unquestionable reality of the community through the representation of its place in the history of Russia. A visitor can read
Black Trans and Queer Women’s Digital Media Production
the power of queer of color cultural production in shifting our attention away from mainstream representation to the representations people create for themselves. This project builds on these conversations by addressing not so much the content as the
, played by performer Werner Hirsch, confronts one of the many problems of representation: whatever benefits it may produce (promises of recognition, becoming a historical document, garnering fame), representation also comes with costs. In becoming an image
dimension. These values are: representation, directness, participation, equality, pluralism, and deliberation. Each of these value dimensions can be seen as capturing a meaning of democracy qua popular rule; the capacity of the ‘people’ to have their
Gustavo H. Dalaqua
You sit here more like spectators … than men taking decisions for their city Thucydides , History of the Peloponnesian War, III, 38, 7 Introduction The expectation to find an anchor for democratic representation has animated the
Marta Nunes da Costa
Lawrence Hamilton. Freedom Is Power: Liberty through Political Representation . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014. ISBN: 9781107062962 (hbk) Are South Africans Really Free? Setting the Stage for Hamilton’s Discussion Are South Africans
The Power Dynamics of Knowledge Production in Political Thought
Camilla Boisen and Matthew C. Murray
want to raise the spectre of why we have to ask that question and if the thought Hamilton asks us to engage with, as outlined above, illuminates ways to approach the systemic under-representation of certain forms of knowledge production in political