‘Representation’ is the key theoretical term of Durkheim’s sociology. It is both central to the nature of social experience and to how this is accessed by the social theorist (see Pickering 2000). In the second edition of Les règles Durkheim stated: ‘Social life is entirely made of representations’ ([1895a] 1987:xi). He made this statement with an obvious degree of irritation, for he insisted that he had ‘expressly stated and repeated (this) in every way’ (ibid). Durkheim had clearly been stung by accusations that he had denied the ‘mental element’ from social experience.
Sue Stedman Jones
Contrasting Representations of Irish and Zionist Nationalism in British Political Discourse (1917–1922)
with the pseudoscientific theories of immutable racial difference that had become prominent in the second half of the nineteenth century. Essentialist representations of national groups had thus long been wielded by scholars and intellectuals on the eve
Durkheim, Psychology and the 'Dualism of Human Nature'
Against readings that have emphasized Durkheim's sociological realism and reductionism, this article examines the role of individuality and psychology in his theory. In particular, Durkheim's approach to representations is the proof of the crucial importance he assigned to mental processes in the construction of social life. Durkheim showed the relation of representations to the collectivity – how ideas promote the sense of community – and in this context he emphasized their epistemological ramifications. Specifically, he pointed to a series of dualisms that remained unexplained by psychological analysis, including the one posing rational against affective logic. While arguing for the preeminence of ideas in Durkheim's view of society, the article also recognizes the limitations that marred his efforts at reconciling the individual with society. Most notably, his genetic approach and his account of the central role of affect in the creation of the social made Durkheim vulnerable to criticism. Even his late essay on the dualism of human nature, which testifies to his lifelong confrontations with psychology, left a whole set of questions unanswered about his theory's applicability to historical forms of institutionalization of the social, especially in modernity.
Between Stereotype and Reality
their roles, and behaviors considered normal or abnormal by a society for whom those historians are speakers. 4 We can choose historical works as privileged sources for studying the representations of women because in the period between the sixth and
Historicizing the Gallic Singularity
Jean Elisabeth Pedersen
dames in 1405. 3 Our articles bring new breadth and depth to the study of these and related issues by exploring a range of different French representations of women in a series of key texts, topics, and historical episodes from the rise of the Middle
A Critique of Rawls
Susan Stedman Jones
Durkheim's account of the categories is re-examined, in a critique of the fundamentally mistaken and philosophically uninformed interpretation put forward in Rawls's Epistemology and Practice (2004). This converts Durkheim into a pragmatist, even a behaviourist, more or less reducing conscience to an epiphenomenon of sounds, movements, and socially generated raw emotions. She bypasses the key role of representations and symbols, while her emphasis on collective 'forces' ignores Durkheim's concern with power as puissance and with the creativity of an effervescent fusion of energies. Thus action is central to his account of the categories, but not in the terms offered by Rawls. For action involves the full range of the functions of conscience. And these come into play through the power of representations and symbols, as an integral part of a whole creative fusion of energies and consciences in the 'dynamogenics' of collective action.
From Dubs to Doubt
Rachel Rosen and Sarah Crafter
contradictory ways ( Caviedes 2015 ; Dines et al. 2014 ; Vickers and Rutter 2016 ). Child migrants are a part of these representations, but also apart from them. While a growing body of scholarship in childhood studies highlights that children are not merely
Asale Angel-Ajani, Carolyn J. Dean, and Meg McLagan
atrocity photography, and I realized that critics imagined a kind of figure. … I called it a counter-witness, an image that emerges out of certain left-wing takes on the problem [of how certain representations take] agency away from the people with whom we
Robyn Singleton, Jacqueline Carter, Tatianna Alencar, Alicia Piñeirúa-Menéndez, and Kate Winskell
, and consequently hegemonic masculinities are constantly being contested, cultivated, renegotiated, and reinforced at local, regional, and global levels. The theory of social representations ( Moscovici 1981 ), which focuses on the complex symbolic
We never see our society as it really is, but always as it appears through our collective representations. Different groups and classes perceive social reality through different social lenses—collective representations—and give different