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Response

Reveal the apparatus

Michael Hardt

I am grateful to the authors of these articles for their critical engagements with my and Toni Negri’s books. A friend once told me that you can judge the worth of a book by the quality of the critical responses it elicits: that is how productive debate proceeds. These articles are excellent examples of such productive intellectual exchanges, and I am proud to have these authors as critics and interlocutors. I am also grateful for their generosity. When reading work from disciplinary perspectives other than our own, it is not uncommon to experience not only bewilderment but also irritation. I recognize it as an act of generosity, then, that these anthropologists engage the kind of political theorizing that Toni and I practice on its own terms, and then relate it to the way they see the issues we treat from an anthropological perspective.

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Response

The Mobile Itineraries of Knowledge-scapes

Mimi Sheller

This special section elucidates intersections between the historiography of mobilities and the interdisciplinary field of mobilities research. The articles highlight relationships between mobilities and stabilization, circulation and place-making, deterritorialization and reterritorialization. This response essay seeks to dispel three myths about mobility studies: (1) that it is purely about the contemporary world, rather than the historical dimensions of mobile processes; (2) that it focuses solely on material phenomenon of physical transport (i.e., of things and people) and ignores the movement of ideas, knowledge, and culture; and (3) that it is purely about “flows” and “circulation” and has little to teach us about friction, resistances, blockages, or uneven power relations. The most important intersections of the histories of mobilities and the field of mobility studies can be found in the ways in which each emphasizes power differentials, blockages, friction, and the relation between mobilities and immobilities.

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Regionalizing global social policy in times of economic crises

Comparing the European Union and the Common Market of the South

Stephen Kingah

English abstract: Focusing on the European Union (EU) and the Common Market of the South (MERCOSUR) this article presents the manner in which regional organizations apply underlying tenets of global social policy (GSP). It notes the challenges regional entities face in doing so. It also argues that the application of GSP at the regional level is important given the nature of many socioeconomic challenges, the effects of which are often felt regionally. Included in the analysis are theoretical premises justifying social policy both at the global and regional levels. In a period of economic hardship with an ever-widening inequality gap, there is pressure to roll back regional endeavours to manage social challenges. However it is exactly during such a period that robust regional measures need to be sustained or put in place to integrate global social policy, map out new social responses to problems, or implement existing regional social norms.

Spanish abstract: Centrándose en la Unión Europea (UE) y en el Mercado Común del Sur (MERCOSUR), este artículo presenta la manera en que las organizaciones regionales aplican los principios básicos de la política social global (PSG), y señala los desafíos que dichas entidades enfrentan al hacerlo. El artículo también sostiene que la aplicación de la PSG a nivel regional es importante dada la naturaleza de muchos desafíos socioeconómicos cuyos efectos con frecuencia se sienten regionalmente. En el análisis se incluyen premisas teóricas que justifican la política social tanto a nivel global como regional. En un periodo de dificultades económicas con una brecha de desigualdad cada vez más amplia, hay una presión por reducir los esfuerzos regionales para enfrentar los desafíos sociales. Sin embargo, es precisamente durante este tipo de periodos que deben mantenerse o poner en marcha sólidas medidas regionales para integrar la política social global, trazar nuevas respuestas sociales a los problemas o implementar existentes normas sociales regionales.

French abstract: En se concentrant sur l'Union européenne (UE) et le Marché commun du Sud (MERCOSUR) cet article entend présenter la manière dont les organisations régionales s'appliquent principes sous-jacents de la politique sociale globale (PSG). Il met en relief les dé fis auxquels sont confrontées ces entités régionales. Il fait également valoir que l'application du PSG au niveau régional soit importante compte tenu des nombreux dé fis socio-économiques dont les effets sont souvent ressentis au niveau régional. Des prémisses théoriques sont incluses dans l'analyse a fin de justifier la politique sociale tant bien au niveau mondial que régional. Dans une période marquée par la crise économique et le fossé toujours grandissant des inégalités, on observe une ne e pression visant à faire reculer efforts régionaux destinés à gérer les dé fis sociaux. Or, c'est justement pendant ce e période que des mesures régionales robustes doivent être maintenues ou mises en place pour intégrer la politique sociale globale; planifier de nouvelles réponses sociales aux problèmes ou me re en œuvre les normes sociales régionales existantes.

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Matthew Zarnowiecki

This article is an exploration of recent engagements with Shakespeare’s sonnets, primarily in the form of adaptations, appropriations, and responses, but also in the form of dramatizations and filmed recitations. It comes after long thought and a

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The Persistent Issue of Refugees

Organized Hypocrisy, Solidarity, and Mounting Protest

Tiziana Caponio and Teresa Cappiali

In 2016, migration issues in Italy became synonymous with the “refugee crisis.” Dramatic images of boat people, rescues, and the deaths of thousands of people in the Mediterranean Sea have catalyzed public attention. Examining the Italian government’s responses, we argue that the “refugee crisis” is the result of an “organized hypocrisy” aimed at containing, rather than managing, the crisis and at gaining access to international protection. Structuring the immigrant reception system on the opposition between humanitarian and economic migrants, Italian policies struggle to offer adequate responses to current mixed flows. Furthermore, this system often has a negative impact on local communities, where we find diversified responses that range from solidarity to opposition and, more recently, the emergence of a “reception market.” Additionally, our analysis suggests that the dysfunctional nature of the Italian reception system, combined with alarmist attitudes promulgated by the media, amplifies discomfort and contributes to an increase in public hostility toward immigrants.

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Assaf Likhovski

I am grateful for the insightful comments made by all three reviewers of my book and for the opportunity given to me by the editor of Israel Studies Forum to respond to these comments. A response is difficult because all three commentators, each in his own way, have shaped my views on the history of Zionism and of Palestine and on legal history. It is also a difficult task because I feel, as I believe many authors do after completing their books, that the book now is only partly ‘mine’. However, I am also happy to use this occasion both to clarify points made in the comments and to highlight some unresolved issues and interesting directions for further research.

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Rihab Azar

A few days after participating in the Beyond Borders Scotland festival, I finally started writing this response to Tom Western's article, “Listening with Displacement,” with (personally) much-needed conviction. Having been in the inspiring company

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Carl Plantinga

I would like to thank Jane Stadler, Malcolm Turvey, and Cynthia Freeland for their careful readings of and responses to my book, Screen Stories: Emotion and the Ethics of Engagement . The three responses are revisions and extensions of their

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María Claudia Mejía Gil and Claudia Puerta Silva

Este artículo presenta un avance exploratorio de una investigación más amplia sobre la relación medioambiental de pobladores de la ciudad de Medellín, relación que se analiza mediante la identificación de comportamientos responsables en las

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Deborah Evans

(Scholars of Islam). 5 In her analysis of Islamic fundamentalist violence and a possible Sartrean response, Russo explicitly excludes a discussion of Sartre’s Critique of Dialectical Reason (1960) while making some reference to his well-known preface to