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“Source de lumières & de vertus”

Rethinking Éducation, Instruction, and the Political Pedagogy of the French Revolution

Adrian O'Connor

This article examines the political pedagogy of the French Revolution and, with that, the revolutionaries' engagement with issues of political community and communication. It proposes that while the distinction between éducation and instruction, or between the development of moral and civic character, on the one hand, and the cultivation of particular skills, on the other, was prominent in eighteenth-century pedagogy and has been influential in our understanding of the Revolution, that same distinction has obscured essential elements of the revolutionaries' pedagogical and political agendas. Attention to the proposals and practices of revolutionary pedagogy, including the revolutionary festivals, reveals that what the revolutionaries called “public instruction” was a dynamic synthesis of civic and technical training, a synthesis that was intended not to foster unquestioning obedience or the obliteration of differences among citizens, but to promote civic communication in ways that would make a participatory politics possible.

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The Metamorphosis of Festivals in a Socialist Country

Dunja Rihtman-Auguštin

In the analysis of the system of Yugoslav socialist festivals and rituals, the hypothesis of the French historian Michel Vovelle about the metamorphosis of revolutionary festivals has been followed. Socialist festivals rhythmize the year in ways that do not disrupt the traditional cycle of annual rituals, still they postpone or anticipate it's peaks. Besides, Yugoslav official socialist ritual neglects crucial moments in individual life cycle. Cultural historic ethnology in Croatia and in Yugoslavia did not consider socialist festivals and rituals as a part of popular culture and was not interested in the research of these phenomena. The present author sketches an outline of the ethnology of socialist ritual.

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Monumentalizing “The Collective”

State-Financed Mural Paintings and Mass Politics, 1934–1940

Elena Maria Rita Rizzi

Russia…cover with frescos the walls of clubs and factories; decorative painters work for the theatre, revolutionary festivals, cinema.” 20 Public and private institutions also subsidized mural art projects in Mexico as of the early 1920s and, later, in