Planetary changes associated with the Anthropocene challenge longestablished ideas and approaches within biodiversity conservation, such as wilderness, wildness, native and exotic species, species and ecosystem diversity, and what counts as success in biodiversity conservation. This article reviews and analyzes how the Anthropocene is being used within the literature on biodiversity conservation. It finds that the idea of a new epoch has been used to frame a broad range of new approaches and concepts to understanding and stemming the loss of biodiversity. These new ideas are diverse and sometimes contradictory, embracing a range of ethical values and positions. Yet the term Anthropocene is not widely used within the biodiversity conservation literature. Despite the cross-disciplinary nature of the Anthropocene, interdisciplinary research on these new concepts and approach is rare, and the insights of the humanities are almost entirely absent. Debates about conservation in the Anthropocene are a continuation of long-running controversies within conservation, such as how it should relate to human development, and over the concept of wilderness. Overall, this review demonstrates that the literature on biodiversity conservation in the Anthropocene is not well established, is both diverse and new, while echoing longstanding debates in conservation, and it indicates the direction such literature might take in future.
A Test Case in India
). Wilderness and rewilding in the urban commons has become a concern for those thinkers who problematize “nature” as always incompatible with cosmopolitan modernity. 12 In some instances in the Global South, however, there are numerous examples of urban
Brendon M. H. Larson
Pleistocene rewilding ( Donlan et al. 2006 ) and assisted colonization ( McLachlan et al. 2007 ). But an emerging nexus for this shift is the concept of novel ecosystems (CNE, see Hobbs et al. 2006 , 2009 , 2013a ), a novel ecosystem (NE) being defined as
collision on the Franklin Hawkaholics Facebook page. 5 See Browne’s blog, Palemaleirregulars , at Palemaleirregulars.blogspot.com. References Bekoff , Marc . 2014 . Rewilding Our Hearts: Building Pathways of Compassion and Coexistence . Novato, CA