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David James

Hegel associates 'subjective' freedom with various rights, all of which concern the subject's particularity, and with the demand that this particularity be accorded proper recognition within the modern state. I show that Hegel's account of subjective freedom can be assimilated to the 'positive' model of freedom that is often attributed to him because of the way in which the objective determinations of right (Recht) recognise the subject's particularity in the form of individual welfare. To this extent, the practical constraints to which individuals are subject in the modern state are not purely external ones, and the freedom which they enjoy within it is not merely subjective in kind. In exploring the role of certain practical forms of necessity in Hegel's account of civil society I show, however, that Hegel points to the existence of a group of people, the poor, who must be thought to lack subjective freedom, because they will experience the constraints to which they are subject as purely external ones. He also suggests the existence of a form of freedom that is merely subjective in kind, because it consists in a sense of absence of constraint that fails to reflect fully the practical forms of necessity that underlie civil society and constrain an individual's actions. The importance of the concept of necessity in Hegel's Philosophy of Right, as highlighted in the paper, demonstrates, moreover, that the emphasis on freedom found in recent interpretations of Hegel's social and political philosophy needs to be counterbalanced by greater recognition of the role played in it by this concept.

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William D. Irvine

Scholars of Third Republic France have long assumed that the political spectrum was divided into a readily identifiable Right and Left, adhering to mutually exclusive positions. But this comfortable political taxonomy could, at times, to violence to political reality. The Right could at some periods in the history of the Third Republic be aggressively nationalistic; at other times it could be positively irenic. The Left was often pacifist, but not always and there were moments when it, or some fraction of it, could be quite bellicose. Neither anti-Semitism nor racism in general were the exclusive province of the Right. On critical issues, the Left could be more refractory to women's rights than was the Right. French fascism claimed to be neither right nor left and at least some French fascist movements could list as many former members of the Left among its leaders as former members of the Right.

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Freedom's Right

The Social Foundations of Democratic Life

Chad Kautzer

Axel Honneth. Freedom’s Right: The Social Foundations of Democratic Life

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Renaissance of the New Right in Germany?

A Discussion of New Right Elements in German Right-wing Extremism Today

Samuel Salzborn

In the scholarly research on right-wing extremism, the term “New Right” is one that has been used in very different ways, and often rather vaguely. This term has at least three different understandings, which frequently overlap. First, in very

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Symbol of Reconciliation and Far-Right Stronghold?

PEGIDA, AfD, and Memory Culture in Dresden

Susanne Vees-Gulani

national and international beacon for peace and reconciliation. 5 However, Dresden has also become a leading center for far-right ideas and activities, particularly since 2014, and this seems only to have strengthened despite tarnishing Dresden's national

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Christiane Lemke

emerging u.s. -European relations. Since both ideologies are grounded in feelings rather than facts, according to Arendt, she saw these opposing ideologies as an even greater danger than other ideologies. 1 Her warnings resonate again today as right

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Hartwig Pautz

Introduction P olitical movements rarely prosper without at least minimal intellectual foundations underpinning their activities. Germany's far right is no exception here. However, the delegitimation of Nazism and fascism and of associated

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Radical Right-Wing Populists in Parliament

Examining the Alternative for Germany in European Context

Lars Rensmann

Following the long-term rise and recent electoral boost of radical-right populist parties across Europe, the Alternative für Deutschland (Alternative for Germany, AfD) became the third strongest party in the 2017 general elections for the

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Righting Names

The Importance of Native American Philosophies of Naming for Environmental Justice

Rebekah Sinclair

that the interdisciplinary work done by Native studies can be summarized as “the setting right of names, the righting of names as much as the writing of names” (2000: 13). Yet there exists no extensive, systematic account to express why and how those

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Right of Center

Rearranging the Israeli Political Map

Samuel Peleg

Kookism by Gideon Aran

Messianic Religious Zionism Confronts Israeli Territorial Compromises by Motti Inbari

The Triumph of Israel's Radical Right by Ami Pedahzur