and Martius mark a Romantic internalization of the equator crossing, a move away from a public spectacle and play on social order toward the life of the Romantic soul. European Romanticism invests its new vision of the individual with a whole language
European Travel Writers and the Making of a Genre—Comment
Steven D. Spalding
Textbooks during French Colonization and the Modern Literature of Global Tourism
primitive that essentialized difference. This article will focus first on this notion of exoticism, which evolved from the Enlightenment concept of the noble savage into romanticism’s notion of the exotic other. I will reconsider its foundations, its
Le Mémoire de fin d'études de Sartre
Vincent de Coorebyter
In 1927, Sartre submitted a dissertation to the Ecole normale supérieure about the Image, that has been published recently. Already in this work he outlines one of the central theses of L'Imagination and L'Imaginaire, namely that a mental image is neither an internal image, nor the reproduction of previously known sensations, but is a pure act of creation. In his dissertation, Sartre sets down in writing the image in the life of the body and the mind, in a hesitant yet very inventive manner. It helps us to understand his subsequent books concerning image without detracting from their originality.
En 1927, Sartre dépose à l'Ecole normale supérieure un mémoire sur l'image, qui vient enfin d'être publié. Il y défend déjà une des thèses centrales de L'Imagination et de L'Imaginaire, à savoir que l'image mentale n'est pas un tableau intérieur, la reproduction de sensations anciennes : c'est une création, un acte de liberté. Dans son mémoire, Sartre inscrit l'image dans la vie du corps et de l'esprit, d'une manière encore hésitante mais aussi très inventive, qui éclaire ses livres ultérieurs sur l'image sans s'y laisser réduire.
Richard D.G. Irvine and Mina Gorji
This article explores what it might mean to interweave social and natural history, taking as its inspiration the work of the English poet John Clare (1793-1864). If Dipesh Chakrabarty (2009) is right in suggesting that the recognition that we are now in the Anthropocene - a geological epoch of our own making - will force us to re-read human history in the light of planetary history and deep time, John Clare's work provides us with a way of thinking how this might be done. Clare's explorations of human and natural temporalities, and his challenges to our dominant sense of value, may help us to think beyond anthropocentricism and to re-evaluate assumptions of economic progress. With this in mind, we conclude by placing Clare's poetry in conversation with John Locke and his labour theory of value.
The Interdiscursive Qualities of Political Romanticism in the Weimar Republic
Christian E. Roques
romanticism in Germany between the two world wars. If the concept was popularized in 1908 by Friedrich Meinecke, who used it to describe the ideology of the Holy Alliance under Klemens von Metternich’s influence, 9 the concept of political romanticism gained
Mirko M. Hall
charismatic front man Douglas Pearce. While it is true that the neofolk scene is an ideologically diverse subculture not necessarily defined by extreme right-wing politics, and only united by its elective affinity for dark romanticism, the suggestive musical
On the Wider Import of a Distinction Debora Silverman Develops in Van Gogh and Gaugin
This essay seeks to extend Debora Silverman's distinction between van Gogh's project of "spiritualizing the material" and Gauguin's related but opposed one of "dematerializing the world" to a wider range of modernist and avant-garde projects. It employs this distinction in connection with Astradur Eysteinsson's analysis of the problems of using such terms as modernism, the avant-garde, and postmodernism in relation to realism and the various revolts against it that have taken place since the age of romanticism. Eysteins-son's general approach is followed, but also in part questioned and given a different direction through discussions of Duchamp, the surrealists, Baudelaire, and Rimbaud.
Harriet Martineau, 'L.E.L', Fame and Fraser's Magazine
‘How ought women to be treated in controversy?’ asked John Robertson in the London and Westminster Review of April 1839.2 It was a good moment to be asking. The 1830s – in many ways a peculiar decade of the nineteenth century, marking the decline of Romanticism and only a gradual emergence of something not yet definable as ‘Victorianism’ (if such a complex cultural phenomenon can be defined) – saw the intensification of an interest in personalities, not unlike that which we see in today’s gossip columns and Sunday supplements. This was the decade of what came to be known as ‘Crokerism’, after John Wilson Croker (1780- 1857) who boasted of ‘tomahawking Miss Martineau in the Quarterly’.
The idea of 'mental maps' can be used to explore the way in which readers reconstruct place and landscape in Austen's fiction. Notwithstanding valuable research on Austen and landscape, that reconstruction is difficult because Austen seldom describes landscape and we are cut off from her assumptions about it by the reshaping of nature by Romanticism and by the Industrial Revolution. Austen had a practical as well as an aesthetic awareness of land, and sought to represent it accurately. Her interest in the landscape is explored by comparison with William Cobbett. To examine how space and landscape in Austen's novels are reimagined today, the article discusses three films based on them: Sense and Sensibility (1995), and versions of Emma produced by ITV and BBC (1996, 2009). In these films space is readily constructed expressively, psychologically or symbolically, but a dimension of Austen's realism is lost, and is replaced with elements of fantasy.
Miriam L. Wallace
Best known as political radicals and novelists, Mary Wollstonecraft and Thomas Holcroft each wrote a travel narrative: Letters Written During a Short Residence in Sweden, Norway, and Denmark ( 1987) and Travels from Hamburg through Westphalia, Holland and the Netherlands to Paris (1804), respectively. Despite their specific differences, both Wollstonecraft and Holcroft reconfigure travel as a politically inflected act of cultural encounter, resisting both the Grand Tour tradition of elite education and Romantic travel as an asocial and personal experience of the sublime. Although Wollstonecraft's account has been examined as a kind of feminine sublime or roman à clef, her political project has frequently been elided, seen as separate from the personal affect of her account. Holcroft's narrative is simply neglected. Reading these two travel accounts as products of late eighteenth-century British radical reform and developing Romantic sensibility enhances our understanding of eighteenth-century travel narrative and British Romanticism itself.