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Arian Hopf

of the nineteenth century, the second half of that century experiences an integral paradigm shift, already imminent since the late eighteenth century: science and its claim for rational, objective knowledge poses a confrontation for not one particular

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Benoît Godin

To scholars, the concept of innovation is intimately linked to science and industry. But this is a very recent story. Before the twentieth century, the concept was mainly used in religious and political affairs. The concept had a pejorative meaning

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The new tools of the science trade

Contested knowledge production and the conceptual vocabularies of academic capitalism

Steve G. Hoffman

Over the last three decades, scientists at research universities have responded in a wide variety of ways to the pressures of academic capitalism. Institutional research has under theorised this trend by assuming entrepreneurialism passively follows formal organisational change. In contrast, I treat academic capitalism not as but as a complex field characterised by contested knowledge production. An increased emphasis on knowledge capitalisation does not necessarily displace traditional academic values, although it may, but it has facilitated the diffusion of conceptual vocabularies that are retooling scientific culture and practice at the centre and margins. These vocabularies are (1) market‐oriented entrepreneurialism, (2) external consulting work, (3) consumer‐oriented research, and (4) interdisciplinarity. Their impact is diffuse across units, but involves processes of group and individual adoption, adaptation or resistance, as the case may be. Their local flavour varies by research domain, level and type of university embeddedness, and epistemic identity.

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Experiments in Excreta to Energy

Sustainability Science and Bio-Necro Collaboration in Urban Ghana

Brenda Chalfin

cases like Ashaiman's ‘excreta to energy’ system, intimate bodily functions. As the renaissance of interest in energy across an amalgam of human sciences makes evident, beyond recognizing the importance of energy writ large to human technological

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Introduction

Science/technology as politics by other means

Simone Abram

This article introduces a series of ideas about the categories of science and politics, by way of actor network theory, Gell's theories of index and agency, and governmentality studies. It explores the ways in which science has become a discursive element in contemporary government, and examines the tensions between the purifying categorizations of politics and science, and the re-embedding (or hybridizing) of science into national political discourse. What emerges is a series of practices by which science is nationalized, domesticating the ideal of a generalized science into localized political debates at both national and sub-national levels, practices which may be transformed at national boundaries. While we acknowledge that science in practice is not abstract or generalizable (since it must engage with a world which is not abstracted), it is the abstracting and purifying work attributed to science which makes it attractive as a political alibi for particular political projects. Rather than seeing science as politics by other means, perhaps we should be examining the creation of a rehybridized science-politics.

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Henrik Egbert

The question of how open science works is tackled by different scientific disciplines, most notably sociology and economics (e.g., Bourdieu 1975 ; Dasgupta and David 1994 ; Eisenstadt 1987 ; Hagstrom 1965 ; Merton 1973 ; Stephan 1996

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The Making of Conservation Science

Report on the Brill-Nuncius Seminar on the Material and Visual History of Science, organized by Sven Dupré (Utrecht University/University of Amsterdam) and Esther van Duijn (Rijksmuseum Amsterdam), 29–30 April 2021

Tijana Žakula

exhibition was mentioned in virtually all the lectures that were delivered during the Brill Nuncius seminar held on 29–30 April 2021, which focused on the formation of conservation science in the post-World War II period, from the 1940s through the 1970s

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Ivan Jablonka

Translator : Nathan Bracher

In order to live and flourish, the human sciences need an entire ecosystem of universities, research centers, journals, publishers, bookstores, and readers. However, this ecosystem has been shaken by upheavals hitting universities, publishing houses

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Raymond Boudon

This is an essay – along with another, by Frank Pearce – on The Cambridge Companion to Durkheim (2005). The collection is heterogeneous, and good in parts. But there are also basic themes, driven by the concerns of the editor-in-chief, Jeffrey Alexander – especially with a 'cultural turn' in how Durkheim is interpreted. Accordingly, a major criticism is that Durkheim's 'culturalism' isn't a relativistic 'culturalism', but looks for universals. His work conjugates the contextual and the universal. It also conjugates the rational and the emotional, in a continuation rather than a radical break with Kant. But it is above all in a commitment to science, and to a search for explanation through intelligible connections in the underlying dynamics of social life. Accordingly, another major criticism is not only the collection's tendency to downplay reason, but a sort of black hole in which it fails to tackle Durkheim's very idea of a social science.

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Believed Belief

Science/Religion versus Sukuma Magic

Koen Stroeken

Typically, magic takes no stance against the socialized beliefs that determine it, in contrast with both science and modern religion, which, in the face of doubt, assert the truth-value of their propositions against such determination. In other words, science and religion engage in 'believed belief'. Their aversion to magical belief is the one thing they can agree on. Believed beliefs produce convictions of truth sufficiently intense to base actions on, such as the killing of someone identified as a witch. Ethnography on Sukuma healing allows us to distinguish this experience of the witch from that of oracles and magical remedies. While research in terms of belief(s) tends to oppose cultures, an approach based on experiential structures links up seemingly distinct practices from different cultures, while differentiating seemingly similar practices within a culture.