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The Complexity of History

Russia and Steven Pinker’s Thesis

Nancy Shields Kollmann

labor force for the cavalry army and military elite and by making taxation easier. Violence was endemic in serfdom and peasant justice. The exile system, also a state creation, was brutal and often deadly. And the state continued to wield violence after

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Robyn Eckersley and Jean-Paul Gagnon

Modern environmentalism, whose genesis tracks mainly from the 1960s and Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring (1962), has forced the anthropocentric emphasis of democracy to account. Nonhuman actors like trees, ecological systems, and the climate have increasingly become anthropomorphized by humans representing these actors in politics. Aside from challenges to the anthropocentric concepts of citizenship, political representation, agency, and boundaries in democratic theory, environmentalism has warned of apocalyptic crises. This drives a different kind of challenge to mainly liberal democracies. Scientists and activists are becoming increasingly fed up with the seeming incompetence, slowness, and idiocy of politicians, interest groups, and electors. Eyes start to wander to that clean, well-kempt, and fast-acting gentleman called authoritarianism. The perfect shallowness of his appearance mesmerizes like a medusa those that would usually avoid him. Serfdom increasingly looks like a palpable trade-off to keep the “green” apocalypses at bay. Democracy’s only answer to this challenge is to evolve into a cleverer version of itself.

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Released from Her Fetters?

Natural Equality in the Work of the Russian Sentimentalist Woman Writer Mariia Bolotnikova

Ursula Stohler

This contribution examines the ways in which Sentimentalist ideas about natural equality, which circulated in Russia during the first two decades of the nineteenth century, were reflected in the work of a little-known woman author, Mariia Bolotnikova (dates of birth and death unknown). By exploring the democratic potential inherent in Sentimentalist discourse, this article suggests that the Sentimentalists' unconditional valuation of all human beings was applied not only to the problem of serfdom, but also to women's social inequality. This tendency manifested itself in the works of renowned male writers such as Nikolai Karamzin (1766–1826), and in those of little-known female authors, such as Mariia Bolotnikova. A provincial woman poet with seemingly few contacts to established literary society, Bolotnikova used Sentimentalism's fascination with nature and femininity to legitimise her activity as an author and to emphasise the woman question. Her criticism of the sexual discrimination that shaped the culture in which she lived was an early, if admittedly small, step towards the creation of awareness of the social inequality of the sexes in Russia.

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Human Connection in the Light of the Writings of Karl Marx and Amartya Sen

An Investigation Using Franz Kafka's Metamorphosis and Manik Bandyopadhyay's Ekannoborti

Simantini Mukhopadhyay

communist-ruled societies, Sen even partially endorsed Friedrich Hayek's ([1944] 2001) scathing criticism of socialism as “the road to serfdom.” 4 In the later part of this article, I will note how the lack of freedom in socialist countries and among the

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Neoliberalism, Hedonism and the Dying Public

Reclaiming Political Agency through the Exercise of Courage

Grant M. Sharratt and Erik Wisniewski

liberal economics. Indeed, J. S. Mill in On Liberty ( 2006 : Chapter five) notes that free market interactions actually increase liberty, rather than diminish it. This view was also defended by Friedrich Hayek in his book The Road to Serfdom ( 2007

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Amy Cox Hall, Sergio González Varela, Jessica S.R. Robinson, Peter Weisensel, and David Wills

domestic social and political conflicts, just as contact with the local tribes leads to the latter's decline. In his scattered way, Goncharov sometimes sees Siberia as an egalitarian antipode to Russian serfdom, and at other times as a natural part of

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Belonging to Spontaneous Order

Hayek, Pluralism, Democracy

Stephanie Erev

The Road to Serfdom portrays human relations in the state of nature as proto-communitarian: early man “is not solitary, and his instinct is collectivist” (12). The narrative of Hayek's myth traces a grand transformation from the simplicity, intimacy

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Michael B. Loughlin

Hervé’s perspective, the war “proved” the impossibility of socialism. Wartime ineptitude may have made socialism seem like the “road to serfdom” even for a former revolutionary socialist like Hervé. A 1915 editorial outlined his developing national

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Alison K. Smith

the seventeenth century, in response first to the codification of serfdom and then to the increasing demands of the new Petrine state. 2 This surge of migration continued through 1710 but then largely ended with the advent of Petrine innovations in

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Selin Çağatay, Olesya Khromeychuk, Stanimir Panayotov, Zlatina Bogdanova, Margarita Karamihova, and Angelina Vacheva

experimentally released from serfdom on the eve of abolition, Elena Pavlovna’s involvement in causes for villagers’ and women’s rights, and her ambiguous attitude toward the Polish national movement (chapters 9 and 10). There is a special focus on the grand