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To Smile and Not to Smile

Mythic Gesture at the Russia-China Border

Caroline Humphrey

This article examines the role of smiling as a performative gesture at the northeast border between Russia and China. It argues that the border is a place where ‘myth’ in the sense proposed by Roland Barthes is manifest in the comportment of people when they see themselves as representing the civilization of one side or the other. In this situation, smiling and not smiling are elements of particular communicative registers that enact political myths in life. Highly gendered, these agentive-performative gestures exist amid other functional and affective registers, which can override them. The article also discusses the ‘helpers’ who mediate in cross-border trade, whose image is also sometimes subject to mythic imagination.

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Johannes Riis

In order to understand the functions of performer expressiveness in film narratives, we need to draw on multiple conceptualizations of emotions. By viewing emotions in terms of their objects, rather than of their distinct expressions, we may understand how, for example, a pause during line delivery can suggest rich character emotions. In an analysis of an Ingmar Bergman scene from Smiles of a Summer Night (1955), I show how acting styles serve different purposes, such as invoking emotional implications of what has been put in place in the narrative. I discuss how artistic constraints and aesthetic considerations, such as acting norms and the need for balance among parts, provides a supplementary explanation of performer expressiveness.

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“Smile Now, Cry Later”

Chicana and Mexicana Homegirls Trespassing/Reinforcing Linguistic, Gendered, and Political Borders

Lena Carla Palacios

Review of Norma Mendoza-Denton’s Homegirls: Language and Cultural Practice among Latina Youth Gangs

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Rudeness and Modernity

The Reception of American Tourists in Early Fifth-Republic France

Christopher Endy

Pierre Dumas had high hopes for the 1965 tourist season. At the very least, the French state secretary for tourism hoped to avoid the frustrations of the previous year, when the US and French press, and even French senators, accused the French of being rude to foreign guests. As warmer weather returned in April, Dumas traveled to the new Orly Airport outside Paris to launch his response. He greeted foreigners, mostly Americans, as they disembarked for stays in France. Young women dressed in the white gloves and modern pink dresses of official Hôtesses de France stood beside him, handing out free roses and perfume bottles. Dumas himself distributed booklets of “smile checks” (chèques-sourire), which the government had printed for its new “National Campaign for Reception and Friendliness.” When tourists felt they received particularly good service in a hotel, restaurant, or elsewhere, they were to tear out one of their ten smile checks, inscribe the name and institution of the friendly employee, and then mail it, no postage required, to the government’s tourist office. At the end of the season, the government would award the ten most-honored French workers with vacation trips of their own to Tahiti, the Antilles or New York City.

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Scott Maisano

BEROWNE

Disconsolate am I, and shall I be,

Friends, viands and music boot me not,

Till she, if she, unless my hoped-for she

Should show her face among the faces here.

My eyes oft make my heart a fool and start

The tender sleeper with visions, dreams,

Phantasms conjured forth from sighs

Commix’d with desperate search for her I lost:

Any human figure gives me shape enough

To paint her face upon before it turns,

Or nears, revealing eyes, a smile, not hers,

Whereupon my breathless heart, having waked

And dressed fantastically with colours wild

To greet the moment garishly displayed,

Discovers only ghostly memories arrayed

In borrowed strangers’ faces, brows and frowns.

Betrayed again my heart can take no more:

Were her shadow here I’d with it converse

All day, or longer, till wearied with talk

About her nose, about her chin, arms, hands,

Together lying side by side, we’d die,

Disanimated by that we once possessed.

The fair, the fine, the foolish Rosaline!

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Anthony Holiday

John Henry Newman’s The Idea of a University speaks to the concerns of African educationalists, not despite, but because of the circumstance that his fidelity to the ideal of a university as a seat of universal knowledge is tied to his argument for the inclusion of theology as an indispensable part of any university syllabus. It is not the case, moreover, that his idealism resonates with us purely because it is carried by a magnificent prose style. Rather, Newman’s thoughts about the universality of higher learning touch us across a considerable culturo-temporal divide, because Africans in their quest for a form of university education which will harmonize with their Africanness are driven by an innate conviction, too seldom made explicit, that such education would have to be inseparable from their own spirituality and religious commitments. If the conviction remains largely unspoken, this has much to do with the global climate of scientism and secularism in which humanity’s aspirations – religious and educational – must seek expression. It is, perhaps, because we are denizens of this climate that we can scarcely suppress a smile at Newman’s claim that theology is a factual science much as, say, physics is a factual science and why his assertion in the Fourth Discourse that “the preservation of our race in Noah’s Ark is an historical fact which history never would arrive at without revelation”1 strikes us (quite rightly) as being something of a howler.

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The Death Throes of Sacrificed Chicken

Triggering Critical Reflexive Stances on Ritual Action in Togo

Marie Daugey

] smiled!” 9 This interpretation of the chicken’s behavior mirrors the success of the rite and the joy of the participants. However, if the animal flaps its wings with its belly on the ground, participants’ faces darken and silence descends. Everybody